and that some of the early settlers may have been migrants nom that region.
According to the available radiocarbon dates, the oldest known
agricultural settlement in the Indian subcontinent is Mehrgarh, while the
oldest known village settlement in India outside the zone of the Indus
civilisation is Balathal.
Major Cities and their Characteristic Features
Common Characteristic Features
Basic Typology of Settlements Modern research has demolished, among
others, the premise that its cities are based on a grid pattern. The roads do not
always move straight, nor do they criss-cross at right angles. However, there
is clear evidence of centralised planning at all the major excavated sites. This
is evident from the physical configurations of the individual settlements: the
manner in which the two separate and separately enclosed mounds stand in
relation to one another, the way in which the fortifications and enclosure
walls were laid out with bastions, corner towers and entrances, etc. The
available basic settlement types point out a detailed concept of typology for
Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus.
Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) is located on the left bank of the Ravi.
Chanhudaro (Sind) lies on the left bank of the Indus, about 130 km south
Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried
up centuries ago.
Lothal (Gujarat) is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati
Surkotada (Gujarat) is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.
Dholavira (Gujarat), the latest city to be excavated, is in the Kutch district.
EXCAVATIONS AT IMPORTANT SITES