Third Stage: Kalibangan
Kalibangan was next only to Harappa and Mohenjodaro in size. But what is
really interesting about it was the excellent preservation of its Pre-Harappan
strata, rather than its mere size. This makes Kalibangan an eminent witness of
the circumstances which accompanied the transition from Pre-Harappan and
Early Harappan to Mature Harappan phases.
    The old Kalibangan was founded around 2400 BC and included some
features then which later became standard for the cities of the Indus
civilisation. For instance, it was a planned city of rectangular shape, about 75
feet long and following a northsouth axis. The city was fortified and the
houses were constructed with dried bricks of 10 × 20 × 30 cm. The sewage
system was constructed with burnt bricks. Its ceramics produced on the
potter’s wheel were of excellent quality and nicely decorated, their patterns
being clearly different from those of the subsequent period.
    Sometime around 2250 BC when the expansion of the Harappan culture
started, the old Kalibangan was abandoned for reasons which are not yet
known. It was rebuilt only 50 or 100 years later and its new pattern reflected
the design of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Now for the first time there was a
clear distinction in Kalibangan between a citadel and a separate lower town.
The citadel or the acropolis was built on the ruins of old Kalibangan, and the
lower town was set up at a distance of about 120 feet from the citadel. The
lower town, which was about 4 times larger than the old Kalibangan, was
planned on the same regular pattern as the lower towns of Mohenjodaro and
Harappa.
    In the new Kalibangan, standards were quite rigid; the various streets of
the city had a width of 12, 18 or 24 feet according to their relative
importance. The bricks, which had been made to strict specifications even in
old Kalibangan, were now fashioned according to the uniform measure of
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
    A special feature of new Kalibangan was a third smaller natural mound at
a distance of about 240 metres from the lower city. This mound contained
only remnants of fire altars. It was probably a religious centre for the people
of the lower city, whereas the two platforms with fire altars found within the