Another settlement of considerable antiquity, though not as ancient as
Mehrgarh, in the Indus system is Gumla. The location of this site is in some
ways similar to Mehrgarh. Gumla lies on the right bank of the Indus, and on
the alluvial plains of its tributary, Gomal river. It is a small mound, and was
excavated in 1971. A sequence of six periods was discovered here.
     A third early settlement is at Sarai Khola, some 3 km southwest of Taxila.
This site is located on the high alluvial plateau which marks the northern
border of the Indus plains in this area. It was excavated in 1968-71. Of the
four periods only the first concerns us here. This may be described as a
Neolithic occupation on account of the material culture. Investigations have
revealed the presence of several pit-dwellings in this period.
     The fourth early settlement of the Indus system is at Jalilpur in south-
western Punjab, some 65 km south-west of Harappa, standing near the left
bank of the Ravi river. It was excavated in 1971. Here too the early period
may be called Neolithic, in that no copper or bronze has been reported.
Evolution and Stages
Archaeological research over the past seven decades has established a
continuous sequence of strata, showing the gradual development to the high
standard of the full-fledged Indus civilisation. These strata have been named
Pre-Harappan, Early
                        STAGES OF EVOLUTION
  The different stages of the indigenous evolution of the Indus civilisation
  can be documented by an analysis of four sites which have been excavated
  in recent years: Mehrgarh, Amri, Kalibangan and Lothal. These four sites
  reflect the sequence of the four important stages or phases in the
  prehistory and proto-history of the north-western region of the Indian
  subcontinent. The sequence begins with the transition of nomadic
  herdsmen to settled agriculturists in eastern Baluchistan (first stage),
  continues with the growth of large villages and the rise of towns in the
  Indus valley (second stage), leads to the emergence of the great cities
  (third stage) and, finally, ends with their decline (fourth stage). Each of