Back to Projects JOIN WHATSAPP GROUP Free PSC MCQ 4 Lakhs+ Please Write a Review Current Affairs 2018 to 2022 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 1 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 2 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 3 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 4 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 5
Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 74Book's First Page
Indus valley. It is argued that it does not seem possible to reconstruct the circumstances leading to urbanisation in the Indus valley clearly. It is maintained that during the mature Harappan period, the center of power shifted from north to south Baluchistan and settlements spread to the coast, suggesting intensification of trade with Mesopotamia. Another theory of the early seventies and eighties brought in the issue of trade as a possible causative factor of Indus urban growth. This is a clear attempt to link the Indus urban growth to developments in Iran, central Asia and Afghanistan. The emphasis is not so much on Indian soil as on postulated developments outside. Echoes of this attempt continue in different forms, in Western archeological writings on India. Even in the early eighties, it was held that trade with Mesopotamia played a crucial role in the transformation from the early stage to the mature phase. This premise is, however, totally unacceptable because there seems, to be no evidence of trade with Mesopotamia during the early Harappan period. It somehow seems difficult for a majority of the Western scholars to think of the origin of the Indus civilisation without trying to link the issue in some way with Mesopotamia. Beginning of Cultures Approximately around 8000 BC, climatic conditions more or less similar to those of today were established in South Asia. This provided the setting for man to make a number of important advances in his efforts to control his environment, and by 4000 BC a series of events was set in train, which led ultimately to the appearance of the first urban societies in this region. Perhaps the most fundamental advance made was the domestication of several breeds of animals and plants. The domestication of various species of animals produced the specialised pastoralists. On the other hand, the domestication of various wild plants produced the shift towards sedentary settlement. This latter adaptation came to dominate the subsequent economic and cultural developments. When man started to cultivate crops and to herd his own domesticated animals, an increased interest in fertility and in magical means of promoting it appears to have become an almost universal aspect of culture.