Indus and converted it into a Persian Satrapy (province). The Persians,
  because of their own difficulty in pronouncing the initial ‘S’ turned
  ‘Sindhu’ into ‘Hindu’, later, passing through the hands of the Greeks,
  ‘Hindu’ became ‘Indus’. Thus, to the Greeks and Romans India came to
  mean the country of the Indus. With the Arab conquest of Sind, however,
  the old Persian name returned in the form of ‘Hindustan’ (land of the
  Hindu); the people who inhabited the land came to be called ‘Hindus’; and
  their religion was described as ‘Hinduism’.
    This discovery of India’s first and earliest civilisation posed a historical
puzzle. It seemed to have suddenly appeared on the stage of history, full
grown and fully equipped. All civilisations known to history till then have
started from small beginnings and have taken hundreds of years to reach their
prime. But the Harappan civilisation till recently showed no definite signs of
such birth and growth. However, the puzzle could largely be solved after the
extensive excavation work conducted at Mehrgarh in Baluchistan between
1973 and 1980 by two French archaeologists (Jean Francoise Jarrige and
Richard H Meadow). Mehrgarh, according to these researchers, gives us an
archaeological record with a sequence of occupations. The sequence clearly
shows a process of continuing elaboration that affected cereal cultivation,
animal husbandry, crafts, architecture and even ideology. And one can easily
witness the stage being gradually set for the development of the complex
cultural patterns that became manifest in the great cities of the Indus
civilisation in the middle of the third millennium BC.
Recent Trends in Field Archaeology
         EIGHT DECADES OF FIELD ARCHAEOLOGY
  The unceasing focus of archeologists from the time of its discovery in
  1922, has made the study of Indus civilisation one of the most intensely
  researched phases of early Indian history. Particularly, the last five
  decades have seen considerable growth in our understanding of the
  civilisation, due to the discovery of a number of important sites in present
  India. As per our present knowledge,       its area extends from Shortughai in