of dating the past. It is based on the fact that
contains radioactive carbon (Carbon-14) and normal carbon (Carbon-12)
atoms in a fixed proportion. Once an organism is dead, it does not receive
any fresh supply of Carbon-14. On the other hand, the Carbon-14 content of
the material begins to diminish with time, according to known radioactive
disintegration laws. The known rate of decay of Carbon-14, combined with
the facts that all living matter contains Carbon-14 and Carbon-12 in a fixed
proportion and that the latter does not decay, forms the basis of the method of
radiocarbon dating.
Celt Axe of stone, bronze or iron. The one in stone is a type-tool of the
Neolithic times. Used either by holding it directly in the hand or by hafting it
to a wooden handle.
Chopper An Early Stone Age tool made with pebbles by flaking a part of the
periphery on the upper face. Used for cutting or scraping.
Cleaver An Early Stone Age tool having a wide chisel-edge formed by the
intersection of two large flake-scars.
Copper Hoards Name given, for convenience, to a characteristic group of
copper objects, found mostly in hoards. They comprise flat, shouldered and
bar-like celts, rings, harpoons, antennae swords, anthropomorphic figures,
etc. Distribution: mainly Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh,
but extending up to Gujarat and Mysore.
Date: About 1900-1300 BC.
Handaxe Almond or pear-shaped tool made by recloving flakes usually from
both upper and lower faces. Mostly found in Early Stone Age context.
Harpoon Missile of bone, antler or metal, comprising a barbed, pointed head
and a barbed shaft. Used for capturing under-water mammals and fish.
Holocene Geological period following the Pleistocene and extending up to
the present. It began about 10,000 years ago.
Jorwe Ware Named after site of the same name in Maharashtra. Red pottery,
often with matt surface, bearing paintings in black. It forms a characteristic
industry of the Northern Deccan Chalco lithic Culture.
Date: About 1600-1000 BC.
Kharoshthi A script prevalent in the northwestern parts of the subcontinent
from the third century BC to