and Red Wares.
western UP or the Ganga-Yamuna Doab but also in the Indo–Gangetic divide
as a whole.
    In Haryana and Indian Punjab the sites of this phase are many, with some
extensions beyond. At Bhagawanpura near Kurukshetra in Haryana and
Dadheri and Katpalon in Jalandhar the Painted Grey Ware level has been
found to overlap with the late Harappan level of these sites. In western UP
the Painted Grey Ware phase has been divided at Jakhera into ‘proto-PGW’
and ‘mature PGW’ stages.
    A general idea of the settlement pattern of the proto-historic upper Ganga
plain has emerged from a close settlement survey of Kanpur district which
shows evidence of 9 Black-and-Red Ware settlements and 46 Painted Grey
Ware settlements. The next phase in the Ganga plain is marked by Northern
Black Polished Ware (NBPW) and with this begins the early historical
period.
CONTACTS WITH INDUS CIVILISATION
Extent and Nature of Contacts
Explanation of their Origin The deep roots which the various Neolithic-
Chalcolithic cultures outside the Indus zone show in their respective areas
rule out any explanation of their origin in purely diffusionary terms. A
coherent explanation for this is needed. The cultures concerned are those
from southeast Rajasthan to south Deccan and Andhra on the one hand and
from the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Doab to east India on the other.
Although, some of these cultures could have come into existence in the
second half of the third millennium BC, the rich cultural details belong by and
large, to the second millennium BC. In other words, in the forms in which we
primarily know them, they are contemporary only with the late Harappans.
Condition of Inner India So, when the Indus civilisation developed around
2700 BC in the Hakra valley in Cholistan, what was the condition in the rest of
the subcontinent, especially in the areas to the east of the Aravallis? The only
possible answer to this question is that there were only hunter-gatherers then
in inner India (with possibly