Neolithic culture provinces, one comprising Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and
the other Assam, itself with a number of subareas within it. Apart from
inferences based on typology, there is little positive evidence of the
beginning of farming in this wide area.
    In Orissa, Kuchai has yielded handmade pottery along with a few ground
stone axes and flakes of sandstone. In Orissa again, the site of Golbai Sasan
has yielded Neolithic celts, bone tools in association with a number of
wheelmade pottery types. This assemblage is likely to belong to the second
millennium BC.
    The entire northeastern region has yielded a rich haul of polished
Neolithic tools but no consolidated picture of a Neolithic level has yet
emerged. In Assam, two Neolithic sites—Daojali Hading in the north
Kachhar hills and Sarutaru on the border between Assam and Meghalaya—
were excavated some years ago. More recently, several places in Nagaland
have yielded both handmade Grey Ware and Neolithic tools but these sites
are still unexcavated. However, the mere existence of Neolithic and
handmade Grey Ware does not mean that these sites are early in date.
    It is possible to argue in favour of the existence of an early village level at
several sites in West Bengal and Bihar, notably at Pandu Rajar Dhibi (West
Bengal), Chirand, Taradih and Senuar (all in Bihar).
    • The relevant cultural material in Palldu Rajar Dhibi consists of
         microlithic blades and husk impressions of rice in the core of pottery.
    • Similar but more extensive evidence occurs at Chirand in the middle
         Ganges valley in north Bihar. This level at the site has yielded a
         number of pottery types, a terracotta industry, bone tools, beads and
         remains of wheat, barley and rice.
    • At Senuar in the Kaimur foothills three principal ceramic types were
         found. In addition to a rich microlithic industry there are bone tools,
         beads and miscellaneous stone objects, rice, barley and some millets.
         Rice is said to have been the principal crop.
    • Not much is known about the Neolithic level at Taradih except that
         this has two phases; comprising primarily handmade red pottery in the
         first phase.
    The Chalcolithic phase in the archaeological sequence of eastern India
covers a very large number of