Among them Navdatoli provides the index. There are more than 100
Chalcolithic sites in Malwa. The evidence suggests that Navdatoli was a
nucleated settlement. A somewhat different picture of the settlement comes
from Eran. Surrounded on three sides by the river Bina, Eran was defended
on the fourth side by a rampart and a ditch. Constructed in the ‘middle’ of the
Chalcolithic phase, the rampart had two phases. No evidence of a rampart has
been obtained at any other Malwa Chalcolithic site.
The dominant pottery type was a Black-on-red Ware associated with
other types like the Black-and-red Ware. The implements used were
primarily Microlithic blades. Evidence of copper is limited, although
Navdatoli possesses copper flat axes. Beads occur profusely and were made
of diverse material. A number of crops were grown at Navdatoli. The Malwa
culture, as dated at Navdatoli, falls broadly in the first half of the second
Malwa was closely linked with Rajasthan on the one hand and the Deccan
on the other. But what is equally, if not more, interesting is the presence of
the late Harappans in Malwa. Among the more interesting developments in
the study of the Chalcolithic cultures in Malwa is the evidence of fire-altars
and perhaps temples at Dangwada, which has also yielded evidence of bull
worship and phallus worship in its Chalcolithic stage.
The first excavations in the Maharashtra Chalcolithic region took place at
Jorwe (near Nasik), which were followed by work at Nevasa. But the recent
reports are invaluable for their comprehensive study of Daimabad and
Inamgaon. The initial settlement zone, as represented by the distribution of
the Savalda culture sites, is between the Tapti and the Godavari in north
Maharashtra. It could be dated around the end of the third and the beginning
of the second millennia BC.
On the basis of work at Kaothe, the Savalda culture has been interpreted
as being that of a semi-nomadic community. This interpretation is partially
based on the similarity between the excavated house types at the site and
those of the local semi-nomadic Dhangar community.
At Daimabad the area occupied by the Savalda culture measured about 3