ignored altogether and apparently suggest a movement on both sides of the
Karakoram and the Himalayas in protohistory, rather similar to the links we
have seen in the context of the Northwestern Frontier and Kashmir.
    The handmade red pottery excavated at Kiari in Ladakh has been
compared with similar pottery of the Burzahom Neolithic Period II. Four
hearths occur in three successive phases and there are domestic cattle, sheep
and goat. Its date is 1000 BC. Giak, a similar site at a distance of less than 10
km and located in the same geographical situation, yielded a single
radiocarbon date which goes back to the sixth millennium BC.
    In the UP Himalayas, near Almora, megalithic burials (dolmenoids,
cairns, menhirs and cist-burials) have been noticed and the upper filling of a
cist yielded a date of third millennium BC. The cist-burials of this area show
‘horse burials’ and red, grey and black pots. Uleri, an iron-smelting site near
Almora shows a date range of 1022-826 BC.
Northeast Rajasthan
It was Jodhpura, a large mound on the bank of the non-perennial Sabi or
Sahibi River, which first yielded evidence of Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture
belonging to the fourth and third millennia BC. Subsequently, the diagnostic
pottery—wheel made, orange to deep-red color, decorated with incised
designs and possessing shapes including dish-on-stand—was found at
Ganeshwar in a small Aravalli valley on the Delhi–Jaipur railway line.
    Attention was focused on this culture after a large number of copper
artefacts, including a distinct type of arrowhead, were found in the
Ganeshwar excavations. Ganeshwar has been re-excavated and a large
number of sites of this type (totally 83) have been located in various parts of
northeast Rajasthan, especially in Sikar, Jaipur and Churu districts.
    The significance of northeast Rajasthan as a copper mining and working
area should be obvious. Ganeshwar, which is not more than 3 or 4 acres, has
already yielded about 2000 copper objects. When one remembers that there
are more than eighty such sites, the possible scale of this copper mining and
working strikes us forcefully.
Southeast Rajasthan