Bhimbetka Caves
Food-producing Men: Neolithic-Chalcolithic Cultures
Settled life, based on food production, first began in the northwest. Here, man
progressed from incipient food production to the foundation of Neolithic-
Chalco-lithic village cultures. Elsewhere, food-producing cultures slowly
evolved, from about the beginning of the second millennium BC, in the
individual contexts of distinct regions.
    If food-production does not characterise the Neolithic economy of the
Burzahom people of the Srinagar valley around 2400 BC (as they were still in
the hunting stage) it does so in the copper age economy of Ahar in the Banas
valley of Rajasthan, the Chalcolithic economy of Maheshwar-Navdatoli in
the Narmada valley, Nagda in the Chambal valley, Daimabad, Chandoli and
various other sites of the northern Deccan. In these areas the conditions of
early farmers living in open villages and cultivating crops which included
wheat, several kinds of legumes or rice, as at Chirand in south Bihar, may be
reconstructed with the help of excavated material.
    In the south, in central and eastern Deccan, the economy was, in keeping
with the ecology of the region, predominantly pastoral, and the Neohthic-
Chalcolithic amalgam in this region,    evidenced at Piklihal and Tekkalakota in