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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 23Book's First Page
as it came to be closely associated with food production and settled life, which the Indian Late Stone Age anticipated in several ways. Langhnaj in Gujarat and Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh testify to the presence of domesticated animals; there is evidence too of the exchange of commodities between different areas and communities. Distribution and Characteristics of Paleolithic Cultures Paleolithic Tool Traditions There has been a gradual accumulation of data on the early Pleistocene tools in the Indian Siwaliks. Uttarabaini in the Jammu area has revealed early Paleolithic artifacts in the Upper Siwaliks. Ample evidence has also come from the Siwalik region of the Potwar plateau in Pakistani Punjab. The crucial site in the present context is Riwat, southeast of Rawalpindi. The subsequent related evidence has emerged from the Pabbi hills, to the east of Jhelum. Another area that is noteworthy is the Kukdi valley in the Pune area of Maharashtra. There are eight volcanic ash exposures near the village of Bori. Paleolithic artifacts are mostly found in gravel. This is not early Pleistocene and earlier, as in the case of the Indian Siwaliks, Riwat and the Pabbi hills, but if its dating is universally accepted, the Acheulian industry in the Deccan can be taken to date from early middle Pleistocene. In fact, the Paleolithic remains occur practically in all eco-zones, or atleast in most of them, outside the major alluvial deposits, between Baluchistan and the western borders of Bangladesh, and between Ladakh and the Palghat area of Kerala. Growing Knowledge about Habitat Our forefathers were certainly knowledgeable about the suitability of different types of local stones as raw materials for their tools and where such stones were not available, as was the case in Tripura and Bangladesh, they preferred a suitable type of fossil wood. They obviously knew the terrain they were living in. They had to know about the local food and water resources and plan their activities accordingly. They were, thus, the first explorers of Indian landscape. As we get back to the lower Paleolithic, one of the burning questions is the evaluation of the Indian subcontinent as a geographical zone in the overall scheme of human evolution. What we can assert on the basis of the Hathnora evidence is that the region was within the distribution area of archaic Homo sapiens.