Upper                migratory
                                                                  life
  Holocene Age (Ice-      Mesolithic Age              Cattle-     Settled or
  free Age) From          Neolithic Age               keeping     sedentary
  10,000 BC               Chalcolithic Age            Agriculture life
                       Table 2 Evolution of Human Life
Basis for Periodization
The earliest traces of human existence in India, so far discovered, go back to
the period between 3,00,000 and 2,00,000 BC. A large number of primitive
stone tools found in the Soan Valley and South India suggests this.
    The modem human being (homo sapiens) first appeared around 36,000
BC. Primitive man in the Paleolithic Age, which lasted till 8000 BC, used tools
and implements of rough stone. Initially man was essentially a food gatherer
and depended on nature for food. He learnt to control fire, which helped him
to improve his way of living.
    From 8000 BC, the Mesolithic Age began and continued up to 4000 BC in
India. During this time sharp and pointed tools were used for killing fast-
moving animals. Chotanagpur plateau, central India and south of the river
Krishna are some of the various Mesolithic sites.
                     Evolution of homo sapiens over time