Tribes and the Other Backward Classes of citizens in admission to educational institution is
      derived from the provisions of clause (4) of articles 15 of the constitution. At present, the number
      of seats available in aided or State maintained institutions, particularly in respect of professional
      education, is limited, in comparison to those in private unaided institutions.
            Clause (i) of article 30 of the Constitution provides the right to all minorities to establish
      and administer educational institutions of their choice. It is essential that the rights available to
      minorities are protected in regard to institutions established and administered by them.
      Accordingly, institutions declared by the State to be minority institutions under clause (1) of
      article 30 are excluded from the operation of this enactment.
            To promote the educational advancement of the socially and educationally backward classes
      of citizens, i.e., the Other Backward Classes or of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
      in matters of admission of students belonging to these categories in unaided educational
      institutions, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30,
      the provisions of article 15 were amplified. The new clause (5) of said article 15 shall enable the
      Parliament as well as the State Legislatures to make appropriate laws for the above mentioned
      94.        The Constitution (Ninety-fourth amendment) Act, 2006—In Article 164 of the
      Constitution, in Clause (I), in the proviso, for the word “Bihar”, the words “Chhattisgarh,
      Jharkhand” shall be substituted.
      95.       The Constitution (Ninety-fifth amendment) Act, 2009—In Article 334, Extended the
      reservation of the seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies from Sixty Years
      to Seventy Years.
      96.        The Constitution (Ninety-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2011—In Schedule 8 of the
      Constitution, Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”.
      97.       The Constitutions (Ninety-Seventh Amendment) Act, 2011—Added the words “Or Co-
      operative Societies” after the world “Or Unions” in Article 19(i)(c) and insertion of article 43B,
      i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part 1x8, i.e. The Co-operative Societies.
      98.       The Constitution (Ninety-Eighth Amendment) Act, 2012—Inserted Article 371J in the
      constitution. The objective was to empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop
      the Hyderabad-Karnataka region.
      99.       The Constitution (Ninety-Ninth Amendment) Act, 2014-Inserted new articles-124 A,
      124B and 124C after article 124 of the constitution. The Act also provided for the composition
      and the functions of the proposed National Judicial Appointments Commission.
      100.        The Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015—amended the First
      Schedule of the Constitution, for the purpose of giving effect to the acquiring of territories by
      India and transfer of territories to Bangladesh through retaining of adverse possession and
      exchange of enclaves, in pursuance of the Agreement between India and Bangladesh concerning
      the demarcation of the land boundary, signed on 16th May 1974 and its Protocal, signed on 6th
      September, 2011.
      101.       The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016—The act amends the
      constitution to introduce “The Goods and Services Tax (GST)”. It amended the articles 248, 249,
      250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366 & 368. Amended the Sixth & Seventh Schedules. Omitted
      article 268A. Inserted new articles 246A (Special provision with respect to goods and services