38.       The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975—This Act amended Articles
      123, 213 and 352 of the Constitution to provide that the satisfaction of President or Governor
      contained in these Articles would be called in question in any court of law.
      39.       The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975—By this Act, disputes relating to
      the election of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by
      such authority as may be determined by Parliamentary Law. Certain Central enactments were
      also included in the Ninth Schedule by this Act.
      40.       The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976—This act provided for vesting in the
      Union of all mines, minerals and other things of value lying in the ocean within the territorial
      waters or the continental shelf or the exclusive economic zone of India. It further provided that
      all other resources of the exclusive economic zone of India shall also vest in the Union. This act
      also provided that the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive
      economic zone and the maritime zones of India shall be as specified from time to time by or
      under any law made by Parliament. Also some more Acts were added to the Ninth Schedule.
      41.       The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976—By this Act, Article 316 was
      amended to raise the retirement age of Members of State Public Service Commissions and Joint
      Public Service Commissions from 60 to 62 years.
      42.       The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976—This act made a number of
      important amendments in the Constitution. These amendments were mainly for purpose of
      giving effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
            Some of the important amendments made are for the purpose of spelling out expressly the
      high ideals of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation, to make the Directive
      Principles more comprehensive and giving them precedence over those Fundamental Rights
      which have been allowed to be relied upon to frustrate socio-economic reforms. The amendment
      Act also inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and made special
      provisions for dealing with anti-national activities, whether by individuals or by associations.
      The judiciary provisions were also amended by providing for a requirement as to the minimum
      number of judges for determining question as to the constitutional validity of law and for a
      special majority of not less than two-third for declaring any law to be constitutionally invalid.
            To reduce the mounting arrears in High Courts and to secure the speedy disposal of service
      matters, revenue matters and certain other matters of special importance in the context of
      socioeconomic development and progress, this amendment Act provided for the creation of
      Administrative and other tribunals for dealing with such matters while preserving the jurisdiction
      of the Supreme Court in regard to such matters under Article 136 of the Constitution. Certain
      modifications in the writ jurisdiction of High Courts under Article 226 were also made.
      43.       The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977—This Act, inter alia, provided for
      the restoration of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts, curtailed by the
      enactment of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 and accordingly Articles
      32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A included in the Constitution by the said amendment, were
      omitted by this Act. The Act also provided for the omission of Article 31 which conferred
      special powers on Parliament to enact certain laws in respect of anti-national activities.
      44.       The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978—The right to property which had
      been the occasion for more than one amendment of Constitution was omitted as a Fundamental
      Right and it was made only as a legal right. It was, however, ensured that the removal of the right