territories. The Act also provided for the exercise of powers of Chairman of the Service
      Commissions, in their absence, by one of their Members.
      16.       The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963—Article 19 was amended by this
      Act to impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble
      peaceably and without arms and to form associations in the interests of sovereignty and integrity
      of India. The oath of affirmation to be subscribed by candidates seeking election to Parliament
      and State Legislatures have been amended to include as one of the conditions that they will
      uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India. The amendments are intended to promote national
      integration.
      17.        The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964—Article 31A was further
      amended to prohibit the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of
      the land is paid as compensation and the definition of “estate” as contained in that Article had
      also been enlarged with retrospective effect. The Ninth Schedule had also been amended to
      include 44 more Acts.
      18.       The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966—Article 3 was amended by this
      Act to specify that the expression “State” will include a union territory also and to make it clear
      that the power to form a new state under this Article includes a power to form a new state or
      union territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or union territory.
      19.        The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966—Article 324 was amended to
      effect a consequential change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear
      election petitions by High Courts.
      20.       The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966—This amendment was necessitated
      by the decision of the Supreme Courts in Chandramohan vs. State of Uttar Pradesh in which
      certain appointments of District Judges in State of Uttar Pradesh were declared void by Supreme
      Court. A new Article 233A was added and the appointments made by Governor were validated.
      21.        The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967—By this amendment, Sindhi
      Language was included in the Eighth Schedule.
      22.        The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969—This act was enacted to
      facilitate the formation of a new autonomous state of Meghalaya within state of Assam.
      23.       The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969—Article 334 was amended so as
      to extend the safeguards in respect of reservation of seats in Parliament and State Legislatures for
      Schedules Castes and Scheduled Tribes as well as for Anglo-Indians for a further period of ten
      years.
      24.       The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971—This amendment was passed
      in the context of a situation that emerged with the verdict in Golaknath’s case by Supreme Court.
      Accordingly, this Act amended Article 13 and Article 368 to remove all doubts regarding the
      power of Parliament to amend the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights.
      25.         The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971—This amendment further
      amended Article 31 in the wake of the Bank Nationalisation case. The word ‘amount’ was
      substituted in place of ‘compensation’ in the light of the judicial interpretation of the word
      ‘compensation’ meaning ‘adequate compensation’.
      26.       The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971—By this amendment, the privy
      and privileges of the former rulers of Indian states were abolished. This amendment was passed