choice for society as a whole. Prof. Sen showed mathematically that societies could find ways to
alleviate such a poor outcome.
SUBRAMANIAN CHANDRASHEKHAR (1910-1995): The Nobel Prize for Physics in
1983 was awarded to Dr S. Chandrashekhar, an Indian-born astrophysicist. Educated in
Presidency College, Chennai, Dr Chandrashekhar happened to be the nephew of his Nobel
forbear, Sir C.V. Raman. He later migrated to the United States where he authored several books
on Astrophysics and Stellar Dynamics. He developed a theory on white dwarf stars which posts a
limit of mass of dwarf stars known also as Chandrashekhar Limit. His theory explains the final
stages of stellar evolution.
MOTHER TERESA (1910-1997): The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Mother Teresa in
1979. Of Albanian parentage, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born at Skopje, now in Yogoslavia.
She joined the Irish order of the Sisters of Loretto at Dublin in 1928 and came to Kolkata in 1929
as a missionary, only to find the misery of the abandoned and the destitute. Concern for the poor
and the sick prompted her to found a new congregation, Missionaries of Charity. Having become
an Indian citizen, Mother Teresa served the cause of dying destitutes, lepers and drug addicts,
through Nirmal Hriday (meaning Pure Heart), the main centre of her activity. Her selfless service
and unique devotion, not only to helpless fellow-Indians but also to the cause of world peace,
earned her and India the first Nobel Peace Prize.
HARGOBIND KHORANA (b. 1922-2011): Hargobind Khorana was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Medicine in 1968. Of Indian origin, Dr Khorana was born in Raipur, Punjab (now in
Pakistan). He took his doctoral degree in Chemistry from Liverpool University and joined the
University of Wisconsin as a Faculty Member in 1960. His major breakthrough in the field of
Medicine—interpreting the genetic code and analysing its function in protein synthesis —
fetched him the Nobel Prize.
CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN (1888-1970): India’s first Nobel Prize for
Physics was claimed in 1930 by the renowned physicist Sir C.V. Raman. Born at
Thiruvanaikkaval near Tiruchirapalli in Tamilnadu, Raman studied at Presidency College,
Chennai. Later, he served as Professor of Physics at Calcutta University. Recipient of many
honours and awards, including the title of ‘Sir’, Sir C.V. Raman received the Nobel Prize for an
important optics research, in which he discovered that diffused light contained rays of other
wavelengths—what is now popularly known as Raman Effect. His theory discovered in 1928
explains the change in the frequency of light passing through a transparent medium.
RABINDRANATH TAGORE (1861-1941): Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian ever
to receive a Nobel Prize. Popularly known as Gurudev, India’s Poet Laureate Tagore was born
on May 07, 1861 in Kolkata. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in recognition of his
work Geetanjali, a collection of poems, in 1913. Tagore wrote many love lyrics. Geetanjali and
Sadhana are among his important works. The poet, dramatist and novelist is also the author of
India’s National Anthem. In 1901, he founded the famous Santiniketan which later came to be
known as Vishwabharati University.