History and Geography
Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic Mahabharata. Its control
passed from one ruler/dynasty to another, beginning with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas of
Central India and then going on to the Turks of Afghan during the 13th to 15th centuries, and
finally to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the latter half of the 18th century and early 19th
century, British rule was established in Delhi. In 1911, Delhi became the centre of all activities
after the capital was shifted from Kolkata (Calcutta). It was made a Union Territory in 1956.
Lying in the northern part of the country, Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the
east where it borders with Uttar Pradesh. The 69th constitutional amendment is a milestone in
Delhi’s history as it got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital
Territory Act, 1991.
The principal food crops are wheat, bajra, jowar, gram and maize. However, emphasis has
now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy and poultry farming,
floriculture, etc., as these are more remunerative than food crops in the territory.
Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India, but also the largest centre
of small industries. These units manufacture a wide variety of items like television, tape
recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, sports goods, bicycles and PVC
goods including footwear, textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, software, etc.
Irrigation and Power
Due to fast urbanisation of the rural areas of Delhi, cultivable command area under
irrigation is getting reduced day by day. Two schemes, namely, “Keshopur Effluent Irrigation
Scheme Phase-III” and “Improvement and Extension of Effluent Irrigation System from
Coronation Treatment Plant” are under execution. Irrigation of about 350 hectare with state tube-
wells and 1,376 hectare from effluent water is being provided in the rural area of NCT of Delhi.
In addition about 4,900 hectare of land is being irrigated from western Yamuna canal network.
The availability of power for Delhi from its own generating units at Rajghat Power Houses,
IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Station is of the order of 850-900 MW.
The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid. Delhi has also envisaged a number
of generating projects to be taken up. Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project has been
established at Indraprastha Estate. A 330 MW Pragati Power Project under construction is
scheduled to be commissioned soon. To streamline the distribution of power, DVB has been
privatised and Delhi is now served by two of the best electric utilities in India, BSES and Tata
Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India. It has three airports—Indira
Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for domestic air services
and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes. It has five important railway stations — Delhi
Junction, New Delhi Railway Station Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway