Area                     : 1,30,060 sq km           Population              : 7.21 crore ( census
                                                                                      2011)
       Capital                  : Chennai                  Principal Language      : Tamil
      History and Geography
            Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early Sangam classics throw historical references
      it is only from the Pallavas we pass to recorded history. South India had remained under the
      hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy
      from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous
      Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita in whose reign the
      later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the
      end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas
      and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountcy over
      South India.
            Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the
      Bahamani Sultanate, by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar
      Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India and at
      the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled
      at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans.
            Even during the period of the tumultuous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota,
      European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese,
      the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres
      known as ‘Factories’. East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam,
      now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the
      native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The state is the
      successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the southern
      peninsula. The composite Madras state was later reorganised and the present Tamil Nadu was
      formed.
            Tamil Nadu is bound on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on west by Kerala, on
      east by the Bay of Bengal and on south by the Indian Ocean.
      Agriculture
            The Mettur Dam was opened in 2011 bringing an additional paddy area of 1,80,000 acres.
      Around 1,22,230 farmers are benefited. To reduce the burden of the farmers, 4 per cent VAT
      exemption to agricultural inputs and farm machineries. 63.40 lakh farmers are benefited.
      Tourism
            As a veritable treasure trove of art and culture, the state has always been a great attraction to
      offer to the tourists. It is the consummate expression of art and culture of past period than
      elsewhere in the country. The state possesses the glorious sculptures, frescoes and murals
      adorning walls and pillars, giant temple towers (gopurams). Tamil Nadu has multifarious tourist
      attractions which include 1076 km of pristine coastline, more than 30,000 temples and places of
      worship date back beyond the beginning of the Christian era, waterfalls, wildlife sanctuaries, hill