of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 and 1,000 BC, it had a culture
      akin to that of the Indus Valley civilization. It were the Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs
      from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power. After the
      Chauhans, it were the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes.
      Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota,
      Bharatpur and Alwar. Other states were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the
      British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818 protecting the interest of the princes. This
      naturally left the people discontented.
            After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma
      Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement with the introduction of provincial autonomy in
      1935 in British India agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan.
      The process of uniting scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States
      Reorganization Act was promulgated, first came Matsya Union (1948) consisting of a fraction of
      states, slowly and gradually other states merged with this Union. By 1949, major states like
      Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur. and Jaisalmer joined this Union making it the United State of Greater
      Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present state of Rajasthan formally came into being, with
      Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa joining it.
            The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan, while Punjab in north, Haryana
      in north-east, Uttar Pradesh in east and Madhya Pradesh in south-east and Gujarat lies in south-
      west of the state.
      Agriculture
            Estimated total sown area in the state is 241.21 lakh hectare. Principal crops in the state are
      wheat, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, oilseeds, kharif pulses and cotton. Cultivation of
      vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta have also picked up over last few years. Red
      chilies, mustard, cumin seeds and methi are commercial crops.
      Industry
            Endowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the
      industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important central undertaking are Hindustan Zinc
      Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Chanderia (Chittorgarh), Hindustan Copper Plant at Khetri
      Nagar (Jhunjhunu), Hindustan Salt Ltd. at Sambhar (Jaipur), HMT Ltd. at Ajmer and Precision
      Instruments Factory at Kota. Major industries are textiles and woollens, engineering goods,
      electronic items, automobile, food processing, gems and jewellery, cement, marble slabs and
      tiles, glass and ceramics, oxygen, zink, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and
      electricity metres, sulphuric acid, handicraft items, television sets, synthetic yarn, insulators,
      stainless steel, re-rolling, steel-foundry and insulting bricks. Besides precious and semi-precious
      stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyers, etc. are other important industries.
            Rajasthan has rich deposits of zinc concentrates, emerald, garnet, gypsum, silver, asbestos,
      felspar and mica. The state also abounds in exports, so Exports Promotion Industrial Park of the
      state has been established and made operational at Sitapura (Jaipur), Boranada (Jodhpur). Inland
      Container Depots have been established at Jaipur, Bhilwara, Jodhpur, and Bhiwadi (Alwar) to
      promote the exporters. Special Economic Zone for gems and jewellery at Sitapura (Jaipur) and
      Special Economic Zone for handicraft at Boranada (Jodhpur) have been established and
      Multipurpose Special Economic Zone “Mahendra World City” has been established in PPP