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Kerala PSC India Year Book Study Materials Page 565Book's First Page
Area : 1,55,707 sq km Population : 41,947.358 (2011 census) Capital : Bhubaneswar Principal Language : Odia History and Geography The history of Odisha dates back to antiquity, its most famous old names being Kalinga, Utkal and Odra. By the time of Mahavir and Buddha, the Kalinga region on the entire east coast acquired recognition and fame. Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga was an epoch- making event of ancient times of far reaching consequences. Kalinga was conquered but the conquest changed the heart of the conqueror. The transformation of Ashoka changed the course of religion and cultural history not only of India but also of the whole of Asia. The next great era of Odishan history commenced during the reign of Mahameghavahana Kharavela who ruled in the 1st half of the second century B.C. During Kharavela’s reign the empire of Kalinga extended upto the river Ganga in the north and the river Godavari in the south. Subsequently the great dynasties such as the Shailodvabas, Bhoumakaras, Somavamsis, Gangas were not only great empire builders, but also promoters of art, literature and culture. The world famous Sun Temple at Konark was built in the thirteenth century by Narasimha Deva, the famous Jagannath temple at Puri in the twelfth century by Anangabhima Deva and the Lingaraj temple, Bhubaneshwar in the eleventh century by Jajati-II. Odisha was ruled successively by five Muslim kings till 1592 from mid-16th century, when Akbar annexed it into the Mughal empire with the decline of the mughal empire, Marathas occupied Odisha. They continued to hold it till the British took over the province in 1803. Modern Odisha was born in 1936. The state, the land of Lord Jagannath, situated on the shores of Bay of Bengal is surrounded by West Bengal on the north-east, Jharkhand on the north, Chhattisgarh and Telangana on the west and Andhra Pradesh on the south. Its diverse landscape comprises coastal plains, mountainous terrain, plateaus, verdant river valleys and slopes dotted with watersheds, springs, lakes and forest cover of varying density. Agriculture Agriculture continues to be the backbone of the state’s economy. Majority of the population is dependant on it as the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2012-13 indicates that farm income has doubled as compared to the survey of 2002-03. State government has intensified the efforts to enhance farmers’ income with sustainable agricultural practices by promoting efficient extension and production technology, post harvest solutions, effective value addition and remunerative market options. The state government provides health insurance coverage of ₹ 1.00 lakh to 5 members of every farming community under “Biju Krushak Kalyan Yojana”. The state has emerged as the largest producer of sweet potato in the country contributing 30 per cent of total national production and third largest state in production of cashew. Odisha has also emerged as a leading supplier of mango graft in the country by enhancing production from 23.85 lakh to 54.56 lakh. In last five years 19 new cold stores with capacity 85200 MT have been established. A special programme for augmentation of production, processing and marketing of tomato, onion and potato has been initiated during 2018-19.