Governor : Dr. Najma A. Chief Secretary : Rajani Ranjan
Chief Minister : N. Biren Singh Jurisdiction of : Manipur
Area : 22,429 sq km Population : 29.67 lakh (prov.
Capital : Shillong Principal : Khasi, Garo &
History and Geography
Meghalaya was created as an autonomous state within the state of Assam in 1970. The full-
fledged state of Meghalaya came into existence in 1972. It is bound on the north and east by
Assam and on the south and west by Bangladesh. Meghalaya literally means the ‘Abode of
Clouds’ and is essentially a hilly state. It is predominately inhabited by the tribal Khasis, Jaintias
and Garos population. The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills which form the central and eastern part
of the state form an imposing plateau with rolling grassland, hills and river valleys. The southern
face of the plateau is marked by deep gorges and abrupt slopes, at the foot of which, a narrow
strip of plain runs along the international border with Bangladesh.
Carved from the erstwhile state of Assam, Meghalaya became a full fledged State on
January 21, 1972. Bounded on the north and east by Assam and on the south and west by
Bangladesh, Meghalaya is spread over an area of 22, 429 square kilometers, and lies between 24°
57’ and 26° 10 north latitude and 89° 46’ and 92° 53’ east longitudes.
Meghalaya is basically an agricultural state with about 81 per cent of its total population
depending entirely on it for their livelihood. The hilly terrain and land conditions of the state do
not offer much scope in bringing additional area under wet condition, but the state has a vast
potential for developing horticulture. The agro-climatic variations offer much scope for
cultivation of temperate as well as tropical fruits and vegetables. Besides the major food crops of
rice and maize, the state is also renowned for its horticultural crops like orange. lemon,
pineapple, guava, litchi, banana, jackfruits and temperate fruits such as plum, pear, peach, etc.
Potato, ginger, turmeric, black pepper, arecanut, tezpata, betel, short- staple cotton, jute, mesta,
mustard and rapeseed etc., are some of the important cash crops. Apart from these, the state has
achieved success in the cultivation of non-traditional crops like tea, cashew nut, oilseeds, tomato,
mushroom, wheat, etc.
The total forest area is 9,49,56,000 hectares which includes reserved forest, protected forest,
national park and unclassed forest. The principal timber species are sal, teak, titachap, gomari,
bol, pine, birch and makri-sal. The principal forest products include timber, bamboo, reed,