Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and
      Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco,
      maize, chillies, groundnut, potato, etc.). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799),
      Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and
      printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was
      ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged. Mysore dynasty initiated and helped
      industrialisation and cultural growth.
           Freedom movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After
      Independence, the Mysore state was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas
      under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was
      renamed Karnataka in 1973.
           Karnataka is situated between 11°31’ and 18°14’ north latitudes and 74°12’ and 78°10’ east
      longitudes. It is bounded by Goa and Maharashtra on the north; Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
      on the east; Tamil Nadu on the south east and Kerala on the south.
      Forestry and Wildlife
           The forest department manages about 20.15 per cent of the geographical area of the state.
      Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, villages
      forests, and private forests. There are 5 national parks and 23 wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome
      shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed.
      Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile
      ecosystem of the Western Ghats. Several wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and
      Project Elephant are being implemented with the central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest
      Planning and Management applied to the two externally aided projects viz., Western Ghats
      Forestry and Environment Project (DFID) and Forestry and Environment Project for Eastern
      Plains (JBIS) has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of
      Village Forest Committees.
           The state has 66 per cent rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural
      labourers. The state has 60 per cent (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72 per cent of the
      cultivable area is rainfed; only 28 per cent is under irrigation. The state has 10 agro climatic
      zones. The red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by black soil. The net sown area of the
      state constituted 51.7 per cent of the total land.
           Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21
      dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh litres a day and 42 chilling centres having
      14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.
           Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectare and the produces amount to
      101 lakh tonnes. The Union Government earmarked ₹ 171.29 crore for Karnataka under National
      Horticulture Mission.
      Power Generation