homeland of the tribals who had dreamt of a separate state for a long time. According to legend,
Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It
largely comprises forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct
cultural traditions. In post-Independence era, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha started a regular
agitation which impelled the Government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council
in 1995 and finally a full-fledged state.
Jharkhand is bounded by West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the
west, Bihar in the north and Odisha in the south.
The state has an area of 79,714 sq km of which 18,423 sq km is forest land. Agriculture and
allied activities are the major source of Jharkhand’s economy. The total cultivable land is only 38
Irrigation and Power
Damodar, Maurakshi, Barakar, North Koyel, South Koyel, Sankh, Subarnarekha, Kharkai,
and Ajay are major water resources in the state. The net sown area is 1.8 million hectare of
which 8 per cent is irrigated. The installed capacity of power in the state is 2,590 MW.
Industry and Minerals
Some of Jharkhand’s major industries are Bokaro Steel Plant in the public sector, Tata Iron
and Steel Company (TISCO) in Jamshedpur in the private sector. Other important industries are
Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), Timken India Limited (Jamshedpur),
Bharat Coking Coal Limited (Dhanbad), Khilari Cement Factory (Palamu), Indian Aluminum
(Muri), ACC Cement (Chaibasa), Central Coalfields Limited (Ranchi), Usha Martin, Usha
Beltron, Uranium Corporation (I) Limited (Jadugora), Hindustan Copper Limited (Mussabani),
Tin Plate Company of India Limited (Jamshedpur), Indian Explosive Limited (Gomia), Hindalco
Bauxite (Lohardaga), etc.
The state is rich in mineral resources. The important available minerals are coal, iron ore,
limestone, copper ore, bauxite, pyrite, china clay, kyanite, fine clay, dolomite, graphite,
bentonite, soap stone, quartz sand and silica sand. The nascent state has the enormous potential
for exploitation of coal, mica and other minerals particularly in Singhbhum, Bokaro, Hazaribagh,
Ranchi, Koderma and Dhanbad.
Roads: The total length of roads is 4,311 km. This includes 1,500 km national highways and
2,711 km state highways.
Railways: The state has a well-developed railway system. Ranchi, Bokaro, Dhanbad,
Jamshedpur are some of the major railway stations.
Aviation: Ranchi is connected with Delhi, Patna and Mumbai. Cities which have air strips are
Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Giridih, Deoghar, Hazaribagh, Daltonganj and Noamundi.
There are many scenic attractions in the state, namely, Ichagarh Bird Sanctuary, Udhwa
Sanctuary-Sahibganj (Pataura Lake), Chachro Crocodile Breeding Centre-Koderma (Tilaya