Jammu and Kashmir
       Area                     :  *2,22,236    sq km        Population                 : 1.25 crore (2011
                                                                                            census)
       Capital                  : Srinagar (Summer)          Principal                  : Urdu, Dogri,
                                                             Languages                      Kashmiri,
                                                                                            Jammu (Winter)
                                                                                            Pahari, Punjabi,
                                                                                            Ladakhi, Balti,
                                                                                            Gojri
                                                                                            and Dadri
      * includes 78,114 sq km under illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5,180 sq km illegally handed over by Pakistan to
        China and 37,555 sq km under illegal occupation of China. The population figures exclude population of areas
        under unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China where census could not be taken.
      History and Geography
           According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat
      Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi
      who drained off the water, making it a beautiful abode. But geologists have their own theory,
      which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the
      mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on
      earth. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century B.C. which was later
      strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. The valley
      regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain empire. After the decline
      of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers. There was a synthesis of Hindu and
      Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) extended his rule up to Bengal in the east, Konkan
      in the south, Turkistan in the north-west and Tibet in the north-east. Considered as the most
      famous Hindu ruler, he was known for constructing beautiful buildings. Islam came to Kashmir
      during 13th and 14th centuries AD. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim
      ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu King Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion.
      Later Chaks over-ran Haider Shah, son of Zain-ul-Abedin. They continued to rule till 1586 when
      Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the control of the Mughal emperor
      to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. The valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years.
           Name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata. The finds of Harappan remains and artefacts
      of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient
      character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 hill principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the
      Dogra rulers, conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over
      Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed
      the territory to Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old
      Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh’s governors and had annexed
      almost the whole of Jammu region. The state was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947 when
      Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26
      October 1947.