History and Geography
            Haryana has a proud history dating back to the Vedic Age. The state was home to the
      legendary Bharata dynasty, after which the country was named Bharat. The land of Haryana has
      been the cradle of Indian culture and civilization. Archaeological findings by Guy E. Pilgrim in
      1915 established that 15 million years ago, the early man lived in the Shivaliks. Vamana Purana
      states that King Kuru ploughed the field of Kurukshetra with a golden plough, drawn by the
      Nandi of Lord Shiva, and reclaimed an area of seven ‘kosas’.
            Replete with myths, legends and Vedic references, Haryana’s past is steeped in glory. It was
      on the soil of Haryana that Saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharata. It was here that Lord Krishna
      preached the gospel of duty to Arjuna about 5,000 years ago. It was here that the epic battle of
      Mahabharata was fought. Being the gateway to north India, the region has been the battleground
      of many a war. The Huns, the Turks and the Tughlaqs invaded India and decisive battles were
      fought on this land. At the end of the 14th century, Taimur led an army through this area to
      Delhi. Later, the Mughals defeated the Lodhis in the historic battle of Panipat in 1526. Another
      decisive battle was fought in 1556 at this very site, establishing the supremacy of the Mughals up
      to the advent of the British rule, and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India.
            An adjunct to Delhi, Haryana practically remained anonymous until the uprising in 1857.
      After the British crushed the rebellion, they deprived the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, the
      Raja of Ballabhgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari in Haryana region, of their territories. These
      were either merged with British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and
      Jind, making Haryana a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganization of Punjab in
      November 1956, Haryana was born as a full-fledged state.
            Strategically located, Haryana is bounded by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west,
      Himachal Pradesh in the north, and Rajasthan in the south. The National Capital of Delhi juts
      into Haryana. With just 1.37 per cent of the total geographical area and less than two per cent of
      India’s population, Haryana has carved a place of distinction for itself. Ranked among the most
      prosperous states in the country, Haryana has the second highest per capita income in India, after
            Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 65 per cent population in Haryana with the second
      largest contribution to the food bowl of the country. Under the diversification of crops, more and
      more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds, vegetable and
      fruits. Sustainable agriculture is being promoted through the propagation of resource conserving
      technologies and organic farming.
            The 1,429-strong network of canals constitutes the bedrock of the irrigation system in
      Haryana with 6.83 lakh tubewells and pumpsets playing no mean role. The major irrigation
      projects in the state are Western Yamuna Canal System, Bhakra Canal System and Gurgaon
      Canal System. Giving practical shape to the lift irrigation system for the first time in India,
      Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes through the Jawaharlal
      Nehru Canal, Project. The state is among the beneficiaries of the multipurpose Sutlej-Beas
      project, sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan.