Comprehensive Adoption Reforms
            Government has notified Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 and Chapter VIII of the Act provisions
      for adoption of orphaned, abandoned and surrendered children and also adoption of children by
      relatives. The Act has adequate safeguards for the children to ensure their best interest and it
      provides for reporting of all adoptions in the country including relative adoptions. Further, all
      adoptions under the Act have to proceed as per the Adoption Regulations framed by Central
      Adoption. Central Adoption Resource Agency has been reconstituted as Central Adoption
      Resource Authority (CARA) under this Act.
            The Adoption Regulations were notified in 2017 and in supersession of Guidelines
      Governing Adoption of Children, 2015. Registering online with Central Adoptions Resource
      Authority (CARA) is mandatory to adopt a child from anywhere in India. Central Adoption
      Resource Information and Guidance System (CARINGS) is the only official portal of CARA for
      legal adoption process. Under Section 80 and 81 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of
      Children) Act, 2015 any person or agency who indulges in illegal adoption shall be punished. By
      adopting a child illegally, one may unintentionally become part of a child trafficking network.
      Adoption is a socio-legal process and there is no role of touts/middlemen in it as they may
      mislead people to adopt a child illegally. The Adoption Regulations contain the provisions for in-
      country and inter-country adoptions of OAS (orphaned, abandoned and surrendered) children.
      Procedures related to adoption by relatives both within the country and abroad have been defined
      in the Regulations. Adoption of step-children has been brought in. There are 32 schedules
      annexed to the Regulations including model adoption applications to be filed in the court and this
      would considerably address delays prevalent in obtaining the court order.
      National Nutrition Mission
            National Nutrition Mission (NNM) is proposed to achieve improvement in nutritional status
      of children (O-6years), adolescent girls and pregnant women and lactating mothers in a time
      bound manner over a period of three years with the objectives of preventing and reducing under-
      nutrition in children (0-3 years); reducing the prevalence of anaemia among young children (6-
      59 months); reducing the prevalence of anaemia among women and adolescent girls (15-49
      years) and reducing low birth weight.
      Anganwadi Services
            The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme now known as Anganwadi
      Services Scheme was launched in 1975 with the objective to improve the nutritional and health
      status of children in the age-group 0-6 years; lay the foundation for proper psychological,
      physical and social development of the child; reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity,
      malnutrition and school dropouts; achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation
      amongst the various departments to promote child development; and enhance the capability of
      the mothers to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of the children through proper
      nutrition and health education. The beneficiaries of the scheme are children below six years of
      age, pregnant and lactating mothers. It is self selecting and is open to all the beneficiaries without
      any precondition.
            These objectives are achieved by providing a package of six services by AWWs/ AWHs
      under the ICDS scheme, viz., supplementary nutrition, preschool non-formal education, nutrition
      and health education, immunization, health check-up; and referral services. The concept of