can undertake the construction and execution of any such scheme. The main functions of CWC
      include: to carry out techno-economic appraisal of irrigation, flood control and multipurpose
      projects proposed by the state governments; to collect, compile, publish and analyse the
      hydrological and hydro-meteorological data relating to major rivers in the country, consisting of
      rainfall, runoff and temperature, etc.; to collect, maintain and publish statistical data relating to
      water resources and its utilization including quality of water throughout the country; to provide
      flood forecasting services to all major flood prone inter-state river basins of the country; to
      undertake construction work of any river valley development scheme on behalf of the
      Government of India or state government concerned; to impart training to in-service engineers
      from central and state organizations in various aspects of water resource development; to
      promote modern data collection techniques such as remote sensing technology for water
      resources development, flood forecasting and development of related computer software; to carry
      out morphological studies to assess river behaviour, bank erosion/coastal erosion problems and
      advise the central and state governments on all such matters.
      Hydrological Observations
            Central Water Commission is operating a network of 878 hydro-meteorological observation
      stations throughout the country on all major river basins to observe (i) water level (gauge), (ii)
      discharge, (iii) water quality, (iv) silt (v) selected meteorological parameters including snow
      observations at key stations. In addition, it also operates 76 exclusive meteorological observation
      stations. The data so collected is utilized for planning and development of water resources
      projects, climate change studies, water availability studies, flood / inflow forecasting,
      examination of international and inter-state issues, river morphological studies, inland waterway
      development, reservoir siltation studies and research related activities, etc.
      Water Quality Monitoring
            Central Water Commission is monitoring water quality at 429 key locations covering all the
      major river basins of India. It is maintaining a three tier laboratory system for analysis of the
      physio-chemical parameters of the water. The level-I laboratories are located at 406 field water
      quality monitoring stations on major rivers of the country where physical parameters such as
      temperature, colour, odour specific conductivity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids,
      pH and dissolved oxygen of river water are observed. There are 18 level-II laboratories located at
      selected division offices to analyze 25 physio-chemical characteristics and bacteriological
      parameters of water. Five level-III/II+ laboratories are functioning at Varanasi, Delhi,
      Hyderabad, Coimbatore and Guwahati where 41 parameters including heavy metals / toxic
      parameters and pesticides are analyzed. This data is used by different agencies for planning of
      water resources project, research purposes, etc. The water quality data being so collected are put
      in various uses related to planning and development of water resources projects.
      Flood Forecasting
            There are 221 flood forecasting stations, of which 166 are level forecasting and 55 inflow
      forecasting stations on major dams/barrages. It covers 19 major river systems in the country
      including 72 river sub-basins. They pertain to 20 states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
      Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka,
      Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telengana, Tripura, Uttaranchal,
      Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal and one union territory Dadra and Nagar Haveli and National