major states namely, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal and travels
      2525 kms. The Ganga River basin including all its tributaries cover about a million square
      kilometres area in 11 states in the country. The Ganga basin exemplifies a typical “hydraulic
      civilization”, where achieving water security to harness the river’s productive potential and limit
      its destructive potential is critical for sustenance and economic growth. Beyond this the river is
      also a home to some of exotic marine life such as gharials, turtles, Gangetic dolphins and golden
      mahaseer etc. In addition to its physical resource value, the Ganga is culturally very significant
      for India. On important religious/spiritual days, millions of people converge on its banks in select
      cities to pray and bathe in the waters, and for them a clean Ganga holds great value. More than
      120 million people came to the city of Allahabad for pilgrimage in 2013, making it the largest
      gathering in the world.
            Despite being highly revered and the primary water resource for the heartland of the
      country, the Ganga river is today seriously polluted and under extreme environmental stress.
      Rapidly increasing population, rising standards of living and exponential growth of
      industrialization and urbanization have exposed the mighty Ganga to various forms of
      degradation. The river suffers from high levels of organic and bacterial pollution, especially in its
      critical middle stretch, resulting in a wide range of negative impacts, including human health,
      agriculture, urban services, and the environment. The major source of pollution in the river is
      untreated domestic and industrial liquid waste thrown in to it. About 70 per cent of the pollution
      is from untreated domestic sewage, 20 per cent is from toxic industrial waste water and 10 per
      cent is from non-point sources such as agricultural runoff, open defecation, dumping of solid
      waste disposal, etc. The threat of global climate change, the effect of glacial melt on Ganga flow
      and the impacts of infrastructural projects in the upper reaches of the river, raise issues that need
      a comprehensive response.
            There have been previous attempts to clean the river, with mixed results. The Ganga Action
      Plan (GAP) was launched in 1985 and extended to two phases (GAP I & GAP II) over more than
      two decades. It focused primarily on urban wastewater and funded a large number of Wastewater
      Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and related urban waste water infrastructure. Impact data show that,
      overall, the programme was able to maintain or even improve water quality in spite of significant
      increases in pollution loadings due to urban and industrial growth. However, there were a
      number of limitations in its implementation - (1) including insufficient investments, (2)
      underutilization of created capacity, (3) little ownership of local bodies, (4) long delays, and poor
      communications - resulting in a public relations failure.
            In 2015, the “Namami Gange” - Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission programme was
      launched. This was at an indicative cost of ₹ 20,000 crore, as an umbrella programme with an
      aim to integrate previous and currently ongoing projects and new initiatives planned as its part.
      In 2016, through the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order
      2016, NGRBA has been replaced with a National Ganga Council for Rejuvenation, Protection
      and Management of River Ganga as an authority. National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)
      has also been converted in to an authority. National Mission for Clean Ganga.
      Jal Kranti Abhiyan
            Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation launched Jal
      Kranti Abhiyan(2015-16 to 2017-18) in order to consolidate water conservation and management
      in the country through a holistic approach involving all stakeholders, making it a mass