of the country’s trade by volume and 68 per cent by value is moved through maritime transport.
      Therefore, shipping and ocean resources, ship design and construction, ports and harbours, issues
      relating to human resource development, finance, ancillaries and new technologies need to be
      developed in the light of the emerging scenario. Shipping continues to remain unchallenged as
      the world’s most efficient means of transportation and there is a need to recognize, reward and
      promote quality within the industry.
      Sagarmala Programme
            To harness the coastline, 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic
      location on key international maritime trade routes, the Government of India has embarked on
      the ambitious Sagarmala Programme to promote port-led development in the country. The vision
      of the Programme is to reduce logistics cost of EXIM and domestic trade with minimal
      infrastructure investment. This includes: reducing the cost of transporting domestic cargo;
      lowering logistical cost of bulk commodities by locating future industrial capacities near the
      coast; improving export competitiveness by developing port proximate discrete manufacturing
      clusters, etc. The objectives of the Programme include: port modernisation, new port
      development, port connectivity, coastal community development, etc.
      Shipping Industry
            Shipping industry is one of the most globalised industries operating in a highly competitive
      business environment that is far more liberalized than most of the other industries and is, thus,
      intricately linked to the world economy and trade. Shipping plays an important role in the
      transport sector of India’s economy especially in Exim trade. Approximately 95 per cent of the
      country’s trade in terms of volume and 68 per cent in terms of value is moved by sea.
            The salient features of India’s shipping policy are the promotion of national shipping to
      increase self-reliance in the carriage of country’s overseas trade and protection of stakeholder’s
      interest in Exim trade.
      Ship Building
            The Indian shipbuilding industry continued to concentrate on defence, coastal and inland
      vessels. The fleet expansion plans of Indian Navy and the vessels for the Indian Coast Guard are
      the two prime segments which were targeted by the Indian shipyards. A shipbuilding subsidy
      scheme was in existence to promote Indian Shipbuilding industry for Central PSU Shipyards
      since 1971. The scheme was extended to all Indian shipyards in October 2002. This policy which
      provided shipbuilding subsidy gave a boost to this Industry.
      Ship Repair
            The Indian share in the global ship repair market continued to be low as there was very little
      capacity addition. Indian ship owners continued to rely on overseas repair facilities owing to
      insufficient capacity and high level of taxation. There are 27 shipyards in the country, 6 under
      central public sector, 2 under state governments and 19 under private sector.
      Ship Recycling
            India has 25-30 per cent share in the global ship recycling industry. Ship recycling is carried
      out mainly at Alang-Sosiya in Gujarat. Started in February, 1983, Alang-Sosiya is the largest
      ship recycling yard in the world. Approximately 10 km long sea front on the western coast of the