road accident data collection and data base management, training of highway engineers and
      professionals in road safety engineering, improving vehicular safety standards,encouraging safer
      road infrastructure including application of intelligent transport, effective trauma care,
      enforcement of safety laws etc. The important schemes on road safety operated by the Ministry
      include publicity measures and awareness campaign on road safety, Scheme for Setting up
      Institutes for Driving Training, Refresher Training of Drivers in Unorganized Sector and Human
      Resource Development, National Highways Accident Relief Service Scheme (NHARSS), setting
      up of inspection and certification centres and road safety and pollution testing equipment and
      programme implementation.
            To enhance passenger safety and specially the safety and security of women and children in
      transit, all the passenger buses and taxis are mandated to be fitted with GPS devices and panic
      buttons to enable real time tracking and interventions in times of crisis.
            In order to remove traffic bottle neck at toll plazas and ensure seamless movement of
      vehicles and hassle-free collection of toll, the Government has implemented a nationwide
      Electronic Toll Collection based on passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) conforming
      to EPC Gen-2, ISO 18000-6C standards. It provides for electronic collection of toll through
      FASTags. The project was first launched in 2015.
      National Green Highways Project
            In order to develop eco-friendly highways, the Green Highways (Plantation Transplantation.
      Beautification and Maintenance) Policy was firmed up in 2016. The Policy aims to develop eco-
      friendly national highways with the participation of community, farmers, NGOs and private
      sector. The initial plantation drive on 1,500 km of national highways at a cost of about ₹ 300
      crore was launched as part of the Policy.
            The Ministry of Shipping was formed in 2009 by bifurcating the erstwhile Ministry of
      Shipping, Road Transport and Highways into two independent ministries. Maritime Transport is
      a critical infrastructure for the economic development of a country. It influences the pace,
      structure and pattern of development. The Ministry of Shipping encompasses within its fold
      shipping and port sectors which also include shipbuilding and ship repair, major ports and inland
      water transport. It is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and
      regulations and laws relating to shipping. Maritime transport is a critical infrastructure for the
      social and economic development of a country. It represents the pace, structure and pattern of
      development of water transport. It has been entrusted with the responsibility to formulate policies
      and programmes on these subjects and their implementation.
      Relevant Website:
      Maritime Development
            India has a long coastline of about 7,517 km, spread on the western and eastern shelves of
      the mainland and also along the Islands. It is an important natural resource for the country’s
      trade. There are 12 major ports and about 200 non-major ports. Indian shipping industry has over
      the years played a crucial role in the transport sector of the economy. Approximately 95 per cent