Indian Railways. It functions as a consultant in technical matters. It also provides consultancy to
other organizations connected with railway manufacture and design. RDSO has developed a new
design of wider and heavier pre-stressed concrete sleeper RT-8527 for 25 Taxle load to achieve
higher frame resistance against bucking, higher rubber pad life, and feasibility of reducing de-
stressing temperature with likely reduction in rail/weld failures.
Though a part of the overall financial figures of the Government of India, the Railway
Budget was being presented separately to Parliament since 1924-25 owing to the Separation
Convention of 1924. The Railways had its own 16 demands for grants, which also used to be
considered and passed by the Parliament separately. The main reason behind the Separation
Convention was to secure stability for civil estimates as the Railway finance used to be a sizeable
part of the general finances. The Government decided to merge the Railway Budget with the
general Budget from the 2017-18. The unified budget will bring the affairs of the Railways to
centre stage and present a holistic picture of the financial position of the government. This
merger would facilitate multimodal transport planning between highways, railways and
Railways would continue to maintain its distinct entity as a departmentally run commercial
undertaking and retain its functional autonomy, delegation of financial powers etc. as per the
existing guidelines. Instead of the erstwhile scheme of sixteen demands for grants, the Ministry
of Finance introduced one demand for grant for the Ministry of Railways.
Rapid progress in industrial and agricultural sectors has generated a higher level of demand
for rail transport, particularly in core sectors like coal, iron and steel ores, petroleum products
and essential commodities such as food grains, fertilizers, cement, sugar, salt, edible oils etc.
Revenue from freight traffic increased from 73.2 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 1106.15 million
tonnes in 2016-17. In the same period , IR loaded 1110.95 million tonnes of which 1106.15
million tonnes was revenue-earning and 4.80 million tomes non-revenue-earning, and achieved
total net tonne kilometres (NTKMs) of 621 billion as against 656 billion in 2015-16.
Passenger earnings in 2016-17 were ₹ 46,280.46 crore. This was ₹ 1,997.70 crore (4.51per
cent) higher than the earnings in 2015-16. Suburban traffic contributed 5.81 per cent to the total
earnings. The remaining 94.19 per cent came from non-suburban passengers. Earnings from
Second and sleeper class mail/express passengers comprised 50.20 per cent of the total passenger
Indian Railways is a commonly used mode of public transportation. During 2016-17, it
carried 8,116 million passengers.
Road transport is a critical infrastructure for economic development of a country. It
influences the pace, structure and pattern of development. The Ministry of Road Transport and
Highways is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws
relating to road transport and transport research. It encompasses construction and maintenance of