Seismology and Geoscience Research (SAGE)
           The national seismological network consisting of 82 observatories has been functioning
      smoothly. Information pertaining to significant earthquake events were transmitted to all
      concerned state and central government agencies, dealing with relief and rescue operations in the
      region and also posted on the website. Scientific deep drilling in Koyna which started in 2016 is
      aimed at setting up of borehole observatory (s) at depth for directly measuring the in-situ
      physical properties of the rocks, pore-fluid pressure, hydrological parameters, temperature, and
      other parameters of an intra-plate, active fault zone in the near field of earthquakes— before,
      during and after their occurrence, leading to a better understanding of the mechanics of faulting,
      physics of reservoir triggered earthquakes and preparing a predictive model.
      Research, Education, Outreach and Training
           It comprises the training programmes of the Ministry, R & D in earth and atmospheric
      sciences programme for extramural support and the outreach and awareness programme. The
      basic aim of the programme is to nurture the R & D activities being undertaken in various
      academic and research institutes of the country and to translate the output into operational use by
      the Ministry.
      Biotechnology
           Realising the tremendous potential of biotechnology in improving human and animal health
      and productivity, enhancing agricultural activity and providing safe and clean environment,
      government set up a multi agency board namely National Biotechnology Board (NBTB) way
      back in 1982 with participation of DST, UGC, ICMR and CSIR to promote activities in
      biotechnology. Subsequently, the National Board was upgraded to a fully fledged Department of
      Biotechnology (DBT) under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986. This provided the
      much needed impetus to biotechnology and the Department conceived programmes and
      formulated integrated programmes in line with its allocation of business rules.
           DBT has infused fresh momentum to the developments in modern biology and
      biotechnology. The Department, in the past 30 years, has witnessed discerned maturation from a
      nascent sector to a sunrise industry, making outstanding achievements in the growth and
      application of and susceptibility of bio-resources and environment and also towards fostering
      among the major biotech destinations in the world and ranks third in the Asia-Pacific region.
      India has the second-highest number of US Food and Drug administration (USFDA)-approved
      plants, after the USA.
           The Department has laid impetus on capacity building for carrying out cuttingedge research
      in the country through fellowships/awards and training programmes. This has helped us
      nurturing the young talent by imparting them specialised training and rewarding them suitably.
           Skill development programmes were initiated to provide high quality hands-on-training
      (postgraduate diploma/certificate) in tools and techniques used in medical biotechnology,
      agricultural biotechnology and computational biology so that they are ready for jobs in
      industries, hospitals, medical colleges, research and development laboratories, diagnostic
      laboratories etc.
      Relevant Website: www.dbtindia.nic.in