equipment for the atomic energy, defence, aerospace, security, information technology and e-
      governance sectors.
           A robot based frameless stereotactic system is developed at BARC for performing
      neurosurgery which has accuracy and patient comfort level comparable to frame based system. It
      automates the frameless stereotaxy using a high precision robot (Parallel Mechanism based
           A cryogenic system consisting of cryogen distribution lines for liquid helium and liquid
      nitrogen, sub-atmospheric vacuum jacketed lines for helium, warm helium lines between the
      helium buffer tanks and compressors, and a 500 watt helium liquefier is being set-up for the
      superconducting electron and heavy-ion linacs at VECC.
      Radioisotopes & Radiation Technology
           DAE has been playing a significant role in the development and applications of various
      radioisotopes in healthcare, industry, agriculture and research. India is one of the leading
      countries in the isotope technology today as a result of the consistent efforts of DAE.
           Radioisotopes are produced in the Dhruva Research Reactor at Trombay, accelerator at
      Kolkata and the various nuclear power plants of NPCIL , a wide variety of radioisotopes for
      medical, industrial and research applications were produced and supplied by BARC. The Board
      of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) produced and supplied a wide range of
      radioisotope products, and radiation technology equipment for medical and industrial uses.
      Homi Bhabha National Institute
           The Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) accredited as a deemed university by Ministry
      of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) completed ten years of its existence. HBNI
      continued its academic programmes by offering various courses with its eight boards of studies,
      namely, as chemical sciences, engineering sciences, health sciences, life sciences, mathematical
      sciences, physical sciences, strategic studies and undergraduate studies.
           Selection of trainees under Orientation Course for Engineering Graduates & Science Post-
      Graduates (OCES) and DAE Graduate Fellowship Schemes (DGFS) at BARC were pursued with
      high standards. At IGCAR the training programmes for Trainee Scientific Officers (TSOs) and
      doctoral programmes in the frontier areas of engineering and basic sciences for the inducted
      research scholars continued.
      Indian Space Programme
           Space activities in the country were initiated with the setting up of Indian National
      Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962. In the same year, work on Thumba
      Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) near Thiruvananthapuram was also started.
      Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established in August, 1969. The Government
      of India constituted the space commission and established the Department of Space (DOS) in