exposure assessment of occupational workers from various facilities of Bhaba Atomic Research
      Centre (BARC) at Mumbai and Tarapur was carried out by whole body/lung counting and
      bioassay (urine/ fecal) sample analysis. All the plants of Heavy Water Board are certified for ISO
      Quality Management System, Environmental Management System and OSHA System. The
      overall safety standards of heavy water plants were far better than similar chemical industries in
      the country.
      Fast Breeder Reactors
           For the second stage of the Nuclear Power Generation Programme, the Indira Gandhi Centre
      for Atomic Research (IGCAR) is pursuing development of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors
      and associated fuel cycle technologies. Breeder reactors produce more fuel than they consume.
      The fast reactor programme of IGCAR is supported by its research and development endeavour
      in a range of disciplines such as reactor engineering, metallurgy, materials science,
      instrumentation, safety, etc. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), operating at Kalpakkam for
      over 25 years, also caters to technology development related to fast reactors.
      Thorium Based Reactors
           Nuclear power employing closed fuel cycle is the only sustainable option for meeting a
      major part of the world energy demand. World resources of thorium are larger than those of
      uranium. Thorium, therefore is, widely viewed as the ‘fuel of the future’. The Indian Nuclear
      Power Programme Stage-3 aims at using thorium as fuel for power generation on a commercial
      scale. In the thorium fuel cycle, thorium 232 is transmuted into the fissile isotope uranium 233
      which is a nuclear fuel.
      Kalpakkam Mini (Kamini) Reactor
           Kamini reactor was operated successfully for neutron radiography of various pyro devices
      for Department of Space. High temperature fission chambers required for neutron flux
      measurement of PFBR were successfully tested.
      Research Reactors
           Dhruva operated at rated power of 100 MWt at a high safety level and availability factor. A
      number of researchers from across the country utilized the neutron beam facility of the UGC-
      DAE Consortium for scientific research.
      Advanced Technologies
           The research centres of DAE are engaged in developing advanced technologies such as
      accelerators, lasers, advanced materials, robotics, supercomputers, instrumentation and others.
      BARC, RRCAT, VECC and BRIT are also engaged in the development of radiation technologies
      and their applications for better crop varieties, techniques for crops protection, radiation based
      post-harvest technologies, techniques for radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy of diseases
      particularly cancer, technologies for safe drinking water, better environment and industrial
      growth.
      Electronics & Instrumentation
           The Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) continued to remain engaged in the
      design, development, manufacture, supply, installation and commissioning of electronic