for extraction of various rare materials and producing stable isotopes like 10B for Fast Breeder
      Reactors and 18O for societal applications.
      Solvent Technology
            In the area of solvents, both the industrial facilities at HWP, Baroda and Talcher for
      production of TBP (Tributyl Phosphate) and D2EHPA have performed very well enabling HWB
      to meet the entire requirement of NFC, NRB and all other units of DAE.
      Boron Enrichment
            In consonance with the material input required for second stage of NPP based on FBRs,
      HWB, with its decades of experience of handling isotope separation process, took up
      development, demonstration and deployment of indigenous technologies for production of
      enriched boron. HWB has now acquired comprehensive capability in this area achieving
      enrichment levels beyond 95 per cent in multiple chemical forms.
            Sodium is another important input for FBRs, used as coolant in the reactor. Networking
      with the Indian R&D organizations, HWB has developed indigenous and safer closed electrolytic
      cell technology for production of nuclear grade sodium. Successively larger size cells are tested
      with the ultimate intent of an industrial scale set up.
      Mineral Exploration and Mining
            Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) continued the
      accelerated pace of exploration activities by integrated, multi-disciplinary methodology and
      judicious utilisation of manpower with a focussed approach on augmentation of uranium,
      thorium and rare metals. This resulted in the augmentation of additional uranium oxide (U3O8)
      reserve of over 15,775 tonnes in Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Jharkhand.
      R&D Support to Power Sector
            The research and development support to the Nuclear Power Programme is provided by the
      research centres of DAE. Numerical models were developed and validated for deflagration,
      flame acceleration and detonation using experimental data to understand different physical and
      chemical processes during hydrogen combustion. Fitness-for-Service and assessment of
      remaining life of hemispherical bottom head of second stage hot tower of HWP, Kota was
      carried out by finite element analyses and limit load calculations.
      Health Safety and Environment
            Review of safety of operating stations was carried out on a regular basis. It continued to
      maintain low radiation exposure in the public domain due to operation of nuclear power stations.
      At all operating stations of NPCIL certified Environmental Management System (EMS) as per
      (SO-14001: 2004 and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) as per IS-
      18001: 2007 are maintained and regular audits (internal, external and management) were carried
      out for continual improvement.
            An online thoron monitoring network was installed and made operational at PRTRF at
      Trombay to monitor the thoron gas concentration at various locations in the facility. Internal