building in spatial data infrastructures.
            Survey Training Institute, Hyderabad established under UNDP assistance is a premier
      institution for training in various disciplines of surveying and mapping to the trainees sponsored
      by the Department, other state/central government organisations and neighbouring countries.
            Keeping in view a new National Map Policy announced in May, 2005, Open Series Maps
      based on UTM projection and WGS-84 datum which is compatible with the coordinate system of
      GPS, used in all activities of surveying and mapping, are being published for users community.
      Defence Series Maps based on-Lambert Conformal Conic Projection and WGS-84 datum are
      being published for defence forces which are declared as classified. SOI is in the forefront of
      providing tidal information for the Indian Ocean by observing sea level data at various ports of
      India and other countries. These are crucial for scientific study in fields including climatology
      modelling, analysis of sea level changes, predicting tsunami, etc. Besides, this is also important
      input for sea navigation.
            Geo-spatial data are being generated at various levels and by various agencies. These are
      being utilized for various application which need the integration of data from various sources. To
      enable this data integration, SOI has taken in its hand a herculean task of redefining the vertical
      datum of geoids by establishing a network of well spread standard ground control points
      throughout the country. This will enable the state cadastral department besides other agencies
      and industries engaged in acquiring geo-spatial information to carry out their job in a national
      reference system.
            While Survey of India meets the national needs in cartography, some specialised thematic
      maps required to meet the needs of the specific users are taken care of by the National Atlas and
      Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO) operating under the Department. It also concentrates
      in a number of areas to integrate resource maps with other relevant socio-economic data and
      represent them in spatial forms, useful for developmental planning. NATMO is trying to develop
      the technology of reverse printing for maps on experimental basis. It is also trying to introduce
      the technique of using metallic colours in map printing.
      Relevant Website:
      Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
            The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, (CSIR) constituted in 1942 is an
      autonomous body which is known for its cutting edge R&D knowledge base in diverse S&T
      areas. Having pan-India presence, CSIR has a dynamic network of 38 national laboratories, 39
      outreach centres, 3 innovation complexes and 5 units. Its R&D expertise and experience is
      embodied in about 4000 active scientists supported by about 7000 scientific and technical
      personnel. It covers a wide spectrum of science and technology—from radio and space physics,
      oceanography, earth sciences, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology and
      nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering and
      information technology. It provides significant technological intervention in many areas with
      regard to societal efforts which include environment, health, drinking water, food, housing,
      energy, leather, farm and non-farm sectors. CSIR is the nation’s custodian for measurement
      standards of mass, distance, time, temperature, current, etc. It has created and is the custodian of
      Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which is a powerful weapon against unethical
      commercial exploitation of Indian traditional knowledge. It maintains Microbial Type Culture