linked incentives; and (f) intensive monitoring at the household level shall be taken up through
the IMIS of the ministry, as already name of each household has been collected by Ministry of
Drinking Water Supply through baseline data.
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
Intervention in the rural sanitation sector in the country was initially started in 1954 as a part
of the First Five Year Plan. The Government introduced a structured scheme in the form of the
Central Rural Sanitation Programm (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving
the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women. From
1999, a “demand driven” approach under the “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) emphasizing
more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development
(HRD), capacity development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and
generation of demand for sanitary facilities was started. The “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” (NBA),
the successor programme of the TSC, was launched from 2012, aimed at creating Nirmal
villages, provided increased incentives through convergence with MNREGS. Though these
programmes had their successes, there still remained a large portion of the rural population
which did not have access to toilets. To significantly upscale the programme, and bring the focus
on the issue of sanitation, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) was launched in 2014. The focus
of the new strategy is to move towards a Swachh Bharat by providing flexibility to state
governments (sanitation being a state subject), to decide on their implementation policy and
mechanisms, taking into account state specific requirements.
The main objectives of the SBM(G) are: a) bring about an improvement in the general
quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open
defecation; b) accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh
Bharat by 2nd October 2019; c) encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for
ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
The Ministry is reforming the sanitation sector by shifting metric from building toilets to
Open Defecation Free villages. Behaviour change is the primary focus and fundamental tool for
achievement of ODF outcomes. The Ministry is doing it by its focused Information, Education
and Communication (IEC) programme. It promotes gender sensitive information, behaviour
change guidelines and various mass education activities. The Ministry issued gender guidelines
in 2017 and menstrual management guidelines in 2015.
Swachhata Pakhwada was started in April 2016 with the objective of bringing a fortnight of
intense focus on the issues and practices of Swachhata by engaging GoI ministries and
departments in their jurisdiction. An annual calendar is pre-circulated among the ministries to
help them plan for the Pakhwada activities.
Namami Gange Programme is an initiative of Ministry of Water Resources (MOWR),
comprising making villages on the bank of river Ganga ODF and interventions dealing with solid
and liquid waste management are being implemented by MDWS. All 4470 villages located
across 52 districts of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal has since
been made ODF by MDWS with active help of state governments. Now the Ministry has taken
up 24 villages on the bank of river Ganga to transform them as Ganga Grams in coordination