and use of other natural resources in a watershed. Embedded in this approach is the recognition
      of the inter-relationships between land use, soil and water conservation and the linkages between
      uplands and downstream areas. Watershed development is a multi-disciplinary field, for
      sustainable natural resource management. Watershed development activities also contribute
      towards mitigation and adaptation to global warming.
      Watershed Development
           Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) was launched in 2015-16 by
      amalgamating ongoing schemes of three ministries viz., Accelerated Irrigation Benefit
      Programmed (AIBP) and PMKSY (WR) of the Ministry of Water Resources, River
      Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD and GR); Integrated Watershed
      Management Programme (IWMP) of the Ministry of Rural Development, Department of Land
      Resources (DoLR) and the Micro Irrigation component of On Farm Water Management
      (OFWM) of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) of the Ministry of Agriculture
      and Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC &
      FW). Under the erstwhile IWMP, 8214 watershed development projects were sanctioned in 28
      states (except Goa) during the period 2009-10 to 2014-15 covering an area of about 39.07
      million hectares, principally for development of rainfed portions of net cultivated area and
      culturable wastelands. The activities undertaken inter alia include ridge area treatment, drainage
      line treatment, soil and moisture conservation, rainwater harvesting, nursery raising,
      afforestation, horticulture, pasture development, livelihoods for assetless persons, etc. In 2015-
      16, the IWMP was amalgamated as the Watershed Development Component (WDC) of the
      Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY). No further watershed development projects
      have been sanctioned from 2015-16 onwards. At present, the principal emphasis is on qualitative
      and timely implementation and completion of the ongoing watershed development projects.
      Natural Land Reforms Modernization
           The scheme of National Land Reforms Modernization Programme (NLRMP) has been
      renamed as Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP) and is being
      implemented since 2008. Under it, 27 states/ UTs have computerized the registration of records
      (RoR) of land in their respective areas, 19 states/UTs have stopped manual issue of RoRs and 22
      states/UTs have uploaded in their websites. Besides, 25 states/UTs have done computerization of
      Registration and 11 states/UTs have done integration of land records with registration. As
      regards the training during this period, the NIRD and PR organized 864 training programmes
      with participation of 22, 032 trainees, including 400 NIRD and PR networking programmes in
      collaboration with 28 states Institutes of Rural Development in the country.
      Panchayati Raj
           The mandate of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj (MoPR), which was set up in 2004, is to
      ensure the compliance of the provisions of Part IX of the Constitution, provisions regarding the
      District Planning Committees as per Article 243 ZD, and PESA. The Ministry’s vision is to
      attain decentralized and participatory local self-government through Panchayats, or Panchayati
      Raj Institutions (PRIs). The Ministry’s mission is empowerment, enablement and accountability
      of PRIs to ensure inclusive development with social justice, and efficient delivery of services.
      The Ministry works to fulfil its mandate in various ways. MoPR fosters knowledge creation and
      sharing so that the issues to be addressed are clearly articulated, meaningful strategies
      formulated, and there is sharing within government as well as with non-government agencies and