district of the country. RSETIs are bank lead initiative with the active support of state
      government. The Government of India provides one time infrastructure support of ₹ 1 crore
      besides reimbursing the cost of training rural poor candidates, the state government provides land
      free of cost or at nominal charges and the banks are responsible for day to day functioning of the
      RSETI. RSETIs are expected to train 750 rural poor youth each year to take up self employment
      in the area they reside. RSETIs also provide periodic doses of skill upgradation training for
      making their initiative viable and sustainable in an increasingly competitive environment.
      Currently 583 RSETIs are functioning in the country.
      Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
            Government of India, as the part of poverty reduction strategy, launched the Pradhan Mantri
      Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY) 2000 as a centrally sponsored scheme to assist the states, though
      rural roads are in the State List under the Constitution. The primary objective of Scheme is to
      provide connectivity by way of an all-weather road (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage
      structures, which is operable throughout the year), to the eligible unconnected habitations as per
      core-network with a population of 500 persons (as per 2001 census) and above in plain areas. In
      respect of ‘Special Category States’ (NorthEast, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir
      and Uttarakhand), the desert areas, the tribal (Schedule V) areas and 88 selected tribal and
      backward districts, the objective is to connect eligible unconnected habitations as per Core-
      Network with a population of 250 persons and above (census 2001).
            To bring execution of the programme to the desired quality standards, a three tier quality
      management mechanism has been institutionalized. First-tier of this mechanism is in-house
      quality control at Programme Implementation Unit (PIU) level. Objective of this tier is process
      control through mandatory tests on material at field laboratory and workmanship. Second-tier is
      structured as an independent quality monitoring at state level through State Quality Monitors
      (SQMs) in which provision of regular inspection of works has been envisaged for ensuring better
      quality. Under the Third-tier, independent National Quality Monitors (NQMs) are deployed by
      NRRDA for inspection of road works at random, not only to monitor quality but also to provide
      guidance by senior professionals to the field functionaries.
      Rural Housing
            Housing is universally recognized as a basic human need. Reducing rural housing shortage
      and improving the quality of housing especially for the poor is an important component of the
      poverty alleviation strategy of the government. The rural housing scheme Indira Awaas Yojana
      (IAY) implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, aimed at providing houses to families
      below the poverty line (BPL) in rural areas has since inception provided assistance for
      construction of 360 lakh houses.
            In the context of government’s priority for “Housing for All” by 2022, the rural housing
      scheme IAY has been restructured to Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana—Gramin (PMAY-G),
      which came into effect from the financial year 2016-17. The main features of the scheme
      include: (a) providing assistance for construction of 1.00 crore houses in rural areas over the
      period of 3 years from 2016-17 to 2018-19; (b) enhancement of unit assistance from ₹ 70,000 to
      ₹ 1.20 lakh in plains and from ₹ 75,000 to ₹ 1.30 lakh in hilly states, difficult areas and IAP
      districts; (c) identification of beneficiaries based on the socio-economic and caste census (SECC
      2011) data covering households that are houseless or living in houses with kutcha walls and
      kutcha roof with two rooms or less after excluding households falling under the automatic