promote national integration.
      Three-Tier Broadcasting
           The three-tier system of broadcasting of AIR caters to the information, education, and
      entertainment needs of the audiences through its stations in this country of continental dimension
      and with a plural society. They provide news, music, spoken word and other programmes to
      almost the entire population of the country, 121.0 crore as per the 2011 census. Its vast reach
      especially in the rural and tribal areas make it the primary and sometimes the only source of
      information and entertainment.
           In National Service the national programmes, which are heard on the Medium Wave in most
      parts of the country, cater to the first-tier broadcasting. Recently, it has started airing on Short
      Wave also. The regional and sub-regional stations provide the second-tier of broadcasting giving
      the programmes in the regional languages and promoting regional cultural facets. In addition,
      FM Channels at metros cater to the modern needs of the people primarily the youth. The Vividh
      Bharati has also been shifted to FM broadcasting system at 40 places. The 86 stations on FM
      mode set up to cater to the needs and tastes of the audiences of small towns in various parts of
      the country are the Local Radio stations (LRS). Recently, the community radio has become very
      popular among different electronic media available in the country. All India Radio has also set-
      up Community Radio Service at five places in the North Eastern India as the voice of the local
      tribal population.
      Regional Channels
           Regional Channels are located mostly in the state capitals and in the major linguistic-
      cultural regions of every state. Altogether 128 such channels are spread over 29 states and 6 UTs
      of the country. The public service broadcasting arm of AIR, the Regional Channels put out
      infotainment programmes with the objective of enriching the lives of their listeners. The
      Regional Channels, broadcast largely on the Medium Wave frequency, follow a composite
      programming mix. They also promote art and culture with a major emphasis on Indian classical
      music. Around 40 per cent of the total broadcast on primary channels comprises music, which
      includes classical, light, folk, film and the music of various other languages. News and current
      affairs programmes constitute 20 to 30 per cent of the broadcast time. Radio plays and drama,
      health and family welfare programmes, programmes for women and children, farm and home
      programmes aimed at empowering rural masses are the other important segments of the primary
      channels. These channels being the most accessible of all the AIR channels, strive to reach their
      audiences in the language most understood by all.
      Local Radio Stations
           At present 86 Local Radio Stations (LRS) are located across the country. These stations are
      serving the local population of the area, providing utility services and reaching right into the
      heart of the community.
      FM Rainbow
           FM Rainbow channel of All India Radio was launched at a time when radio listening was
      declining especially in big cities. FM radio filled this gap effectively by ensuring disturbance-
      free high quality music to its listeners. Even the presentation style of the compere on FM channel
      was transformed to suit the changing needs of listeners. Interpersonal chatting style of the