It has also been decided, however, to simultaneously undertake readjustment and rationalization
      of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
      Tribes, based on the population census for the year 1991, without affecting the number of seats
      allocated to states in the legislative bodies so as to correct the imbalance caused due to uneven
      growth of population/electorate in different constituencies. The Constitution (Eighty-fourth
      Amendment) Act, 2001 enacted in 2002 has effected the aforesaid policy decisions of the
      Government. Pursuant to the enactment of the Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act,
      2001 which provided for readjustment of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for
      the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled tribes. The Delimitation Act, 2002 was enacted. The
      Delimitation Commission had accordingly been constituted in 2002 under the provisions of the
      Delimitation Act, 2002 with Shri Justice Kuldip Singh, a retired judge of the Supreme Court as
      its Chairperson and Shri B.B. Tandon, Election Commissioner in the Election Commission of
      India and the State Election Commissioner as its members. The main task of the Commission
      was to readjust the division of territorial constituencies of the seats in the House of the People
      allocated to each state and the readjustment of the division of territorial constituencies of the total
      number of seats in the Legislative assembly of each state. Subsequent to that the Constitution
      (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003 was enacted and by that Act the basis of the delimitation
      of territorial constituencies was changed based on the 2001 census in place of 1991.
           Although the rules for delimitation vary across countries, tasks involved in drawing
      boundaries are generally similar. In India, the drawing of boundaries, generally, entails: (a)
      allocating seats to the states and districts within a state; creating a database composed of maps,
      population figures and the details showing geographic/natural/administrative conditions of the
      area concerned; associating the statutory representatives from the Lok Sabha and State
      Assemblies; (d) distributing the states and districts into geographic units called the
      constituencies; (e) having an extensive exercise for public input into delimitation process; (f)
      summarizing and evaluating the constituencies; and g) passing and publishing the final order.
      The procedure for delimiting the constituencies in India stands clearly spelt out in The
      Delimitation Act, 2002. This legal framework provides for an independent and impartial
      Delimitation Commission. The final orders of the Commission are not subject to any
      modification or veto by the Government.
           The Delimitation Commission functioned in a transparent manner. The methodology and
      guidelines were clearly established and published in advance. While framing the constituencies,
      the Commission—as far as practicable—kept in view the interest of communities such as those
      sharing a common tribe, race or ethnic background and also those defined geographically or by
      physical features like mountains, forests, rivers, etc. The Commission drew the boundaries of the
      constituencies reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes strictly in accordance with the
      constitutional and statutory provisions. After getting finality of the delimitation exercise, in
      pursuance of the second proviso to Article 82 and second proviso to clause (3) of Article 170 of
      the Constitution, a Presidential Order dated February 19, 2008 was issued making new
      delimitation effective throughout the country. However, Section 10(B) of the Delimitation Act,
      2002 deferred the legal effect of the 2007 delimitation order in relation to the state of Jharkhand.
           With the issuance of the Presidential Order specifying the date on which the delimitation
      orders notified by the Delimitation Commission shall take effect, it was necessary to amend the
      relevant provisions and the First and Second Schedules of the Representation of the People Act,
      1950 to reflect the changes made by the delimitation orders notified by the Delimitation