of his property. Where the net value of the estate exceeds 5000, she is entitled to charge a sum of
      5,000 with interest at four per cent payment and in the residue, she is entitled to her share. The
      Act imposes no restriction on the power of a person to will away his property.
            Under the second scheme, the Act provides for Parsi intestate succession. By The Indian
      Succession (Amendment) Act, 1991, the Act was amended to provide equal shares for both sons
      and daughters in their parental properties, irrespective of the fact that it was that of the father or
      that of the mother. It also enables the Parsis to bequeath their property to religious or charitable
      purposes, etc., without any restrictions. In effect the amended law provides that where a Parsi
      dies intestate leaving behind a widow or widower as the case may be and children, the property
      shall be divided so that the widow or widower and each child receives equal share. Further,
      where a Parsi dies leaving behind one or both parents in addition to children, or widow/widower
      and children, the property shall be so divided that the parent or each of the parents shall receive a
      share equal to half the share of each child.
            This Act was amended by The Indian Succession (Amendment) Act, 2002. It was felt that
      Section 32 of the Principal Act is discriminatory to widows and as such the proviso to Section 32
      was omitted to remove discrimination in this regard. Section 213 was also amended by this
      amending Act to make Christians at par with other communities.
            The law relating to testamentary succession among Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains,
      subject to certain restrictions and modifications is carried in Section 57 of the Indian Succession
      Act, 1925 read within the Third Schedule. The law relating to intestate succession among Hindus
      is codified in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. It extends to the whole of India except the State of
      Jammu and Kashmir. The remarkable features of the Act are the recognition of the right of
      women to inherit property of an intestate equally with men and abolition of the life estate of
      female heirs. Further, (vide The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005), the Hindu
      Succession Act, 1956 was amended so as to provide for the equal share to a coparcener daughter
      in a joint Hindu property.
            A vast majority of Muslims in India follow Hanafi doctrines of Sunni law. Courts presume
      that Muslims are governed by Hanafi law unless it is established to be the contrary. Though there
      are many features in common between Shia and Sunni schools, yet there are differences in some
      respects. Sunni law regards Quranic verses of inheritance as an addendum to pre-Islamic
      customary law and preserves the superior position of male agnates. Unlike Hindu and Christian
      laws, Muslim law restricts a persons right of testation. A Muslim can bequeath only one-third of
      his estate. A bequest to a stranger is valid without the consent of heirs if it does not exceed a
      third of the estate, but a bequest to an heir without the consent of other heirs is invalid. Consent
      of heirs to a bequest must be secured after the succession has opened and any consent given to a
      bequest during the life time of the testator can be retracted after his death. Shia law allows
      Muslims the freedom of bequest within the disposable third.
      Anand Marriage (Amendment) Act, 2012
            The Anand Marriage Act, 1909 was enacted to remove doubts as to the validity of the
      marriage rights of the Sikh called “Anand” and it does not provide for the provisions of
      registration of marriages. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 applies to all Hindus, Buddhists, Jains
      or Sikhs by religion. It also applies to all other persons who are not Muslims, Christians, Parsis
      or Jews unless they establish that they were not governed by Hindu law, custom or usage prior to
      the Act. Section 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 provides for registration of Hindu marriages