governments as per existing financial policy.
“Fire Services” is a state subject and has been included as a municipal function in the XII
schedule of the Constitution of India in terms of Article 243-W. As such, it is the primary
responsibility of the state governments/municipal bodies to enforce the National Building Code
and allocate sufficient resources for strengthening and equipping Fire Services to ensure that
safety of life and property of citizens within their jurisdiction. The 13th Finance Commission
recognizing the need to restructure Fire and Emergency Services across the country has
recommended that a portion of the grants provided to the urban local bodies should be spent on
revamping of fire services within their respective jurisdiction. Further the Finance Commission
has also recommended that all municipal corporations with a population of more than 1 million
(2001 census) must put in place a fire hazard response and mitigation plan for their respective
areas. Government of India as a supplemental initiative is also implementing a centrally
sponsored scheme at a cost of ₹ 200 crores for strengthening of Fire and Emergency Services in
the country. The Scheme attempts to fill the existing gaps in fire fighting and rescue capabilities
through introduction of modern technology such as advanced fire tender, high pressure pump
with mist technology, quick response team vehicle, combi tools for search and rescue and
capacity building of various stakeholders.
The people of India are of different religions and faiths. They are governed by different sets
of personal laws in respect of matters relating to family affairs, i.e., marriage, divorce,
succession, adoption, wills, etc. The subject matter of personal laws is relatable to entry 5 of List
III- Concurrent list in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India and hence the Union
Legislature, namely Parliament and subject to the provisions of Article 254 of the Constitution.
The state legislatures are also competent to make laws in the field.
Law relating to marriage and divorce has been codified in different enactments applicable to
people of different religions. These are: (1) The Converts Marriage Dissolution Act, 1866; (2)
The Divorce Act, 1869; (3) The Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872; (4) The Kazis Act, 1880;
(5) The Anand Marriage Act, 1909; The Indian Succession Act, 1925; (7) The Parsi Marriage
and Divorce Act, 1936; (8) The Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939; (9) The Special
Marriage Act, 1954; (10) The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; (11) The Foreign Marriage Act, 1969;
and (12) The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986.
The Special Marriage Act, 1954 which provides for a special form of marriage and the
registration of such marriages extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and
Kashmir, but also applies to the citizens of India domiciled in Jammu and Kashmir. Persons
governed by this Act can specifically register marriage under the said Act even though they are
of different religious faiths. The Act also provides that the marriage celebrated under any other
form can also be registered under The Special Marriage Act, if it satisfies the requirements of the
Act. The Section 4(b) (iii) of the Act, was amended to omit the words “or epilepsy.” Sections 36
and 38 have been amended to provide that an application for alimony or the maintenance and
education of minor children be disposed off within 60 days from the date of service of notice on