There are approximately 3.2 crore cases pending in various courts in India. Government is
      said to be the major litigant and there have been several Law Commission reports suggesting for
      a Litigation Policy to avoid unwarranted litigation by government and thus bring down load on
      the court system as well as burden on the public exchequer. Therefore, the draft National
      Litigation Policy 2017 proposes to put in place a system which prevents, controls and reduces
      Institutionalisation of Arbitration
            Delay in conducting the legal procedure and want of timely disposal of investment related
      cases/application lead to international arbitration involving huge expenditure to the state
      exchequer. Hence, streamlining the legal and judicial system to ensure speedy resolution of
      commercial disputes is the need and a necessary requirement. Department of Legal Affairs,
      constituted a high level committee to review Institutionalization of Arbitration Mechanism in
      India, under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Justice Shri B. N. Srikrishna. The report of this
      Committee has been submitted to the Minister for Law and Justice in July, 2017.
      Reforms in Legal Profession
            Legal fraternity represents the most enlightened and traditionally respected section of the
      society. In a democratic polity, the role of this dignified profession has always been very
      important. It is the watchdog of democracy and remains ever vigilant in the matters concerning
      the rule of law as enshrined and guaranteed by our Constitution. There has been a strong
      objection on the matter of allowing legal practice in India by foreign lawyers and law firms,
      inter-alia, on the ground of procedural hurdles faced by Indian Lawyers in case they want to
      practice in foreign countries. Therefore, the issue is of parity in opportunity to practice on
      reciprocal basis.
      Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange
            The Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange was established in 2000 under Section 18 of
      Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999. Under Section 19 of FEMA, the central
      government or any person aggrieved by an order made by Special Director (Appeals), or made
      by an Adjudicating Authority other than referred to in sub-Section (i) of Section 17, may prefer
      an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal that may be filed within 45 days from the date of receiving
      the order by the aggrieved person or the central government.
            Section 20 of FEMA provides that the Appellate Tribunal shall consist of a Chairperson and
      such number of members as the Central Government may deem fit. The jurisdiction of the
      Appellate Tribunal may be exercised by the Benches. The Bench may be constituted by the
      Chairperson, with one or more Members as the Chairperson deems fit. The Benches of the
      Appellate Tribunal shall ordinarily sit in New Delhi and at such other places as the Central
      Government may, in consultation with the Chairperson, notify and the Chairperson may transfer
      a Member from one Bench to another. If at any stage it appears that the matter should be heard
      by a Bench of two Members the Chairperson may transfer the matter to such Bench as he deems
      fit. A person who is qualified to be a Judge of a High Court or is or has been a Judge of High
      Court can be appointed as Chairperson of the Tribunal and a person who has been or is qualified
      to be a District Judge can be appointed as a Member of the Tribunal. Under Section 49 sub-
      Section (5) clause (b), all appeals which were pending before PERA Board have been transferred
      and are at the disposal of the Appellate Tribunal constituted under Foreign Exchange