Government of India Act, 1935 introduced a federal constitution to India, involving distribution
      of powers between the Centre and the constituent units. The Federal Court of India began
      functioning from October 01, 1937. To begin with, Federal Court had a very limited jurisdiction,
      confined to original jurisdiction in disputes between the centre and constituent units or inter se
      amongst the latter, advisory jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction on a certificate from the High
      Court. Appeals from Federal Court could go to the Privy Council, from the judgements rendered
      in exercise of original jurisdiction, or by leave of the Federal Court or the Privy Council. In cases
      involving interpretation of Constitution, the parties had to first go to Federal Court in appeal
      from the High Court, and in other cases appeals from the High Courts lay directly to the Privy
      Council. It could give advice on such questions of public importance, as were referred to it by
      the Governor General, in his discretion. The appellate jurisdiction of the Federal Court was
      enlarged by enactment of Act No. 1 of 1948 and appeals were provided to Federal Court from
      the judgement of the High Court in the same circumstances, in which appeals could be brought
      to the Privy Council, without any special leave and also by special leave of the Federal Court in
      any other case. However, appeals to the Privy Council were still possible by leave of the Federal
      Court or of the Council.
            After achieving independence in August, 1947, there was demand from the Indian polity for
      enlarging the jurisdiction of Federal Court and granting more powers to it. From 1949 appeals to
      the Privy Council were abolished altogether and the entire appellate jurisdiction was vested in
      the Federal Court. On January 26, 1950, Federal Court gave way to the Supreme Court of India
      under the new Constitution. Supreme Court of India is located on Tilak Marg, New Delhi.
            After its inauguration on January 28, 1950, the apex court commenced its sittings in a part
      of the Parliament House. The Court moved into the present building on August 4, 1958. The
      original Constitution of 1950 envisaged a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and 7 puisne
      Judges - leaving it to Parliament to increase this number. In the early years, all the Judges of the
      Supreme Court sat together to hear the cases presented before them. As the work of the Court
      increased and arrears of cases began to cumulate, Parliament increased the number of Judges
      from 7 in 1950 to 10 in 1956, 13 in 1960, 17 in 1977, 25 in 1986 and 30 in 2009. As the number
      of the Judges has increased, they sit in smaller Benches of two and three—coming together in
      larger Benches of 5 and more only when required to do so or to settle a difference of opinion or
            The Supreme Court of India comprises the Chief Justice and 30 other Judges appointed by
      the President of India. Supreme Court Judges retire upon attaining the age of 65 years. In order
      to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court, a person must be a citizen of India and must
      have been, for at least five years, a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in
      succession, or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession for at
      least 10 years or he must be, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist. Provisions
      exist for the appointment of a Judge of a High Court as an ad hoc Judge of the Supreme Court
      and for retired Judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts to sit and act as Judges of Supreme
      Court. The Constitution seeks to ensure the independence of Supreme Court Judges in various
      ways. A Judge of the Supreme Court cannot be removed from office except by an order of the
      President passed after an address in each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the
      total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present
      and voting, and presented to the President in the same Session for such removal on the ground of
      proved misbehaviour or incapacity. A person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court is