for by other states namely Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra,
      Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
           As per UNFC system, as in 2015, the total resources of gold ore (primary and placer) in the
      country were estimated at 527.96 million tonnes. Out of these, 17.23 million tonnes were placed
      under reserves category and the remaining 510.73 million tonnes under remaining resources
      category. Total resources of gold (primary), in terms of metal, stood at 654.74 tonnes. Out of
      these, 70.09 tonnes were placed under reserves category and 584.65 tonnes under remaining
      resources category. The resources include placer-type gold ore in Kerala estimated at 26.12
      million tonnes containing 5.86 tonnes gold metal.
           The largest resources in terms of gold ore (primary) are located in Bihar (44 per cent)
      followed by Rajasthan (25 per cent) and Karnataka (21 per cent), West Bengal, and Andhra
      Pradesh (3 per cent each), Telangana & Madhya Pradesh (2 per cent each). Remaining very small
      quantity of resources of ore are located in Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Maharashtra and
      Tamil Nadu. In terms of metal content, Karnataka remained on top followed by Rajasthan, Bihar,
      Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, etc.
      Iron Ore
           Hematite and magnetite are the most important iron ores in India. About 59 per cent
      hematite ore deposits are found in the eastern sector. About 92 per cent magnetite ore deposits
      occur in southern sector, especially in Karnataka. Of these, hematite is considered to be superior
      because of its higher grade. Indian deposits of hematite belong to the precambrian iron ore series
      and the ore is within banded iron ore formations occurring as massive, laminated, friable and
      also in powdery form.
           As per UNFC system, the total resources of hematite as in 2015 are estimated at 22,487
      million tonnes of which 5,442 million tonnes (24 per cent) are under ‘reserves’ category and the
      balance 17,045 million tonnes (76 per cent) are under ‘remaining resources’ category. By grades,
      lumps constitute about 56 per cent followed by fines (21 per cent), lumps with fines (13 per cent)
      and the remaining 10 per cent are black iron ore, not-known and other grades. Major resources of
      hematite are located in Odisha - 7,559 million tonnes (34 per cent), Jharkhand - 5,286 million
      tonnes (24 per cent), Chhattisgarh - 4,858 million tonnes (22 per cent), Karnataka - 2,467 million
      tonnes (11 per cent) and Goa - 1189 million tonnes (5 per cent). The balance resources of
      hematite are spread in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh,
      Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
           Magnetite is another principal iron ore that also occurs in the form of oxide, either in
      igneous or metamorphosed banded magnetite-silica formation, possibly of sedimentary origin.
      As per UNFC system, the total resources of magnetite as in 2015 are estimated at 10,789 million
      tonnes of which ‘reserves’ constitute a mere 53 million tonnes while 10,736 million tonnes are
      placed under ‘remaining resources’. Classification on the basis of grades shows 20 per cent
      resources of metallurgical grade while 80 per cent resources belong to unclassified, not-known
      and other grades. The resources of coal washery and foundry grades constitute meagre
      proportions. India’s 96 per cent magnetite resources are located in four states, namely, Karnataka
      - 7,802 million tonnes (72 per cent) followed by Andhra Pradesh - 1,392 million tonnes (13 per
      cent), Rajasthan - 617 million tonnes (6 per cent) and Tamil Nadu - 507 million tonnes (5 per