a two tier system providing self-evaluation templates to be filled in by the mine operator
      followed by validation through Indian Bureau of Mines.
      Mining Surveillance System
            To curb on menace of illegal mining, a satellite-based monitoring system namely Mining
      Surveillance System (MSS), was developed and launched which aims to establish a regime of
      responsive mineral administration through automatic remote sensing detection technology. The
      latest satellite image is juxtaposed on geo-referenced mining lease maps to check any illegal
      mining in the vicinity.
      Mineral Resources
            The classification of reserves/resources of various minerals based on United Nations
      Framework Classification (UNFC) was done in April 2010 following which National Mineral
      Inventory was prepared. The UNFC consists of a three dimensional system with three axes-
      economic viability; feasibility assessment; and geological assessment.
            Total resources of bauxite as per UNFC in the country are placed at 3,897 million tonnes.
      These resources include 656 million tonnes reserves and 3,240 million tonnes remaining
      resources. By grades, about 81 per cent resources are of metallurgical grade. The resources of
      refractory and chemical grades are limited and together account for about 5 per cent. Odisha
      alone accounts for 51 per cent of country’s resources of bauxite followed by Andhra Pradesh (16
      per cent), Gujarat (9 per cent), Jharkhand (6 per cent), Maharashtra (5 per cent) and Chhattisgarh
      and Madhya Pradesh (4 per cent each). Major bauxite resources are concentrated in the east coast
      of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
            As per UNFC system, total resources of chromite in the country as in 2015 are estimated at
      344 million tonnes, comprising 102 million tonnes reserves (30 per cent) and 242 million tonnes
      remaining resources (70 per cent). About 96 per cent resources of chromite are located in
      Odisha, mostly in the Sukinda valley in Jajpur and Keonjhar districts. Minor deposits are
      scattered over Manipur, Nagaland, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra
      Pradesh and Telangana. Gradewise, charge-chrome grade accounts for 31 per cent resources
      followed by ferrochrome grade (18 per cent), beneficiable grade (25 per cent) and refractory
      grade 14 per cent. Low, others, unclassified and not known grades together account for 13 per
            The total resources of copper ore in the country as in 2015 are estimated at 1511.50 million
      tonnes with about 12.16 million tonnes of copper metal. Of these 207.77 million tonnes (13.74
      per cent) fall under Reserve category containing 2.73 million tonnes of copper metal and the
      balance 1303.73 million tonnes (86.26 per cent) are ‘Remaining Resources’ containing 9.42
      million tonnes of copper metal. Rajasthan is credited with 813.33 million tonnes ore (54 per
      cent) containing 4.48 million tonnes of copper metal, Madhya Pradesh 283.43 million tonnes ore
      (19 per cent), containing 3.42 million tonnes copper, Jharkhand, 295.39 million tonnes ore (20
      per cent), containing 3.28 million tonnes of copper metal and the rest 7 per cent are accounted