remove contaminants that missed in the primary and secondary treatment and removal of
suspended solids, refractory organics and toxic components. Tertiary physical processes are
filtration and carbon absorption. Chemical process includes precipitation, oxidation and
neutralization. The biological processes involve biodegrading. Organisms such as bacteria, fungi,
yeasts and algae are commonly used to break down the organic matters. The cell tissues are then
removed from the treated water by physical method.
Air Pollution Control Equipment: Industrialization and urbanization have resulted in a
profound deterioration of India’s air quality. India’s most severe environmental problem, come
in several forms, including vehicular emissions and untreated industrial smoke. Air pollution,
especially in metropolitan cities and large towns has assumed great significance with the
adoption of stringent environmental control standards for various industries. Hence the pollution
control equipment industry has acquired importance. Further judicial pronouncements have
given a definite direction and urgency for adoption of air pollution control measures. The choice
of control method depends on factors such as the nature of pollutant, flow-rate (amount of
pollutant emitted), particle size and desired collection efficiency. The air pollution control
equipments are broadly classified under the categories such as settling chambers, cyclone and
multi-cyclones, bag filters, wet scrubbers, spray tower, venturi scrubber, ionizing scrubber and
Industrial Gears: Industrial gears comprises mainly gears and gear boxes. Gears are used
for two basic purposes: increase or decrease of rotation speed and increase or decrease of power
or torque. Gears being an important part of a machine have immense usage within various
industries. These industries include automotive industries, coal plants industry, steel plants
industry, paper industry, in mining and many more. In these industries they behold a wide area of
application. They are used in conveyors, elevators, kilns, separators, cranes and lubrication
systems. Gearbox is defined as a metal casing in which a train of gears is sealed. The
manufacture of gears and gear boxes involve high precision machining and accurate assembly as
mechanical power is to be transmitted noiselessly and with minimum losses. Different types and
sizes of gears such as spur gears, helical gears, worm gears, spiral gears and many other kinds
are manufactured in the country. The demand for gears and gear boxes predominantly depend on
the growth of industrial machinery, machine tools, and consumer and automobile sector.
Considering the industrial growth prospects, particularly in automobile sector, the demand for
gears and gear boxes is expected to grow at a healthy pace.
Wood-based Industry: Plywood, veneers of all kinds and other wood based products such as
particle board, medium density fibre board, etc., form the major segment of this industry in India.
The industry comes under the de-licensed category.
Watch Industry: The watch industry in the country comprises units both in the organized as
well as the small scale sector. The organized sector contributes 40 per cent of the total demand
while the rest is met by the unorganized sector. Most of the watches are being manufactured
under the electronic system.
Central Public Sector Enterprises
The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, comprising the Department of
Heavy Industry and the Department of Public Enterprises, functions under the charge of Cabinet
Minister (Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises). There is a Minister of State for Heavy
Industries and Public Enterprises. The Ministry promotes the development and growth of three