Under Section 435 of the Companies Act, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has constituted
      Special Courts by designating 20 existing Session courts/Additional Sessions Courts as Special
      Courts under Section 435 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act). These courts are in Jammu and
      Kashmir, Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan,
      Punjab, Haryana, Meghalaya, Manipur,Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore),
      Union Territories of Puducherry, Chandigarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar
      Haveli, Daman and Diu, NCT of Delhi.
      National Company Law and Appellate Tribunal
           The constitution of National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and National Company Law
      Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) was done in 2016. These bodies have been constituted for faster
      resolution of corporate disputes and reducing the multiplicity of agencies thereby promoting
      ‘ease of doing business’ in the country. With the constitution of National Company Law
      Tribunal (NCLT), the Company Law Board (CLB) stands dissolved and cases pending with CLB
      were transferred to NCLT.
           The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 and SICA Repeal Act, 2003 were also put in
      place in 2016. With this, the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) and
      Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction were dissolved and Benches of
      NCLT were designated to exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority of Adjudicating
      Authority conferred by or under part II of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. Central
      Government has also notified provision for transfer of proceedings relating to arbitration,
      compromise, arrangements and reconstruction to the benches of NCLT. The applications
      pending before High Courts on winding up shall continue to be dealt by the respective High
      Courts and fresh applications are required to be filed before NCLT. NCLAT has its headquarters
      at New Delhi. At present the NCLT has its Benches at 10 locations viz., New Delhi, Ahmedabad,
      Allahabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai.
           The Competition Appellate Tribunal under the provisions of Competition Act was dissolved
      in 2017 and merged with NCLAT. The appeal against the orders of Competition Commission of
      India is now with NCLAT.
      Companies in the Registry
           Total number of companies registered in the country by March, 2017, under the Companies
      Act, 2013, the Companies Act, 1956 and the previous company Laws, stood at 16,41,333. Of
      these, 3,01,778 companies were closed; 802 were lying dormant as per Section 455 of
      Companies Act, 2013; 1,38,206 companies have not filed statutory annual filings consecutively
      for two years; 5,698 companies are under liquidation; names of 25,264 companies are in the
      process of being removed under Section 248 of the Companies Act, 2013; and 282 companies
      were in the process of being re-activated. Taking all these factors into account, there were
      11,69,303 active companies in March, 2017.
      Corporate Social Responsibility
           In India, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for companies has been mandated through
      legislation through Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013. Section 135, Schedule VII of the
      Companies Act, 2013, and the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014
      came into force from April, 2014. From time to time the Ministry has made amendments to